presenter disclosures
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Presenter Disclosures

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 64

Presenter Disclosures - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 135 Views
  • Uploaded on

Presenter Disclosures. Deborah Goebert. “No relationships to disclose”. (1) The following personal financial relationships with commercial interests relevant to this presentation existed during the past 12 months:. Youth Violence and Substance Use.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Presenter Disclosures' - dewey


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
presenter disclosures
Presenter Disclosures

Deborah Goebert

“No relationships to disclose”

  • (1) The following personal financial relationships with commercial interests relevant to this presentation existed during the past 12 months:
youth violence and substance use

Youth Violence and Substance Use

Deborah Goebert, Dr.P.H. ([email protected])

&

Investigators & Staff, Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center & Alcohol Research Center of Hawai`i

Department of Psychiatry, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

May 22, 2008

api youth substance use and violence
API Youth Substance Use and Violence
  • >12 million API population in U.S. (Census 2000)
  • Minimal knowledge of API youth violence and substance use regarding prevalence & risk-protective factors
  • Available knowledge typically aggregates different Asian groups & Pacific Islander groups together
      • Misleading because Asians tend to have lower rates than Pacific Islanders
      • Misleading because even within the Asian groups, there are differences (e.g., Cambodian youths > Chinese youths)
      • Does not address the issue of those of mixed ancestry
api youth substance use and violence1
API Youth Substance Use and Violence
  • Adolescence is a period of great vulnerability
  • Youth who begin to abuse alcohol or drugs at earlier ages are at greater risk for developing future substance use problems
  • Alcohol use associated with other risk behaviors, including violence
  • In contrast to the number of studies on risk factors, only a few studies have examined protective factors regarding the development of substance use disorders and violence.
slide13

Importance of Disaggregation

In Physical Fight Past 12 Months (Youth Risk Behavior Survey)

N-Am = Native American; A-Am = African American; Pacific = Pacific Islander, including Hawaiian;

Multiple = Multiple, non-Hispanic; Hisp = Hispanic

slide14

Importance of Disaggregation

Threatened or Injured w/Weapon on School Property in Past Year

N-Am = Native American; A-Am = African American; Pacific = Pacific Islander, including Hawaiian;

Multiple = Multiple, non-Hispanic; Hisp = Hispanic

importance of disaggregation
Importance of Disaggregation
  • Over-representation at Hawai‘i Youth Correctional Facility:
      • Hawaiians
      • Samoans
      • African Americans
  • Under-representation:
      • Caucasians
      • Filipinos
      • East Asians (e.g., Japanese, Chinese)

From: Kassebaum, 1995a/b.

slide20

Results: Violence Prevalence

*Within past 6 months.

slide21

Results: Violence Prevalence

*Within past 6 months.

slide22

Results: Violence Prevalence

*Within past 6 months.

results 2003 2004 three high schools survey
Results:2003-2004, Three High Schools Survey
  • Youth violence: Samoans > Hawaiians, Filipinos, Japanese
  • Substance use: Hawaiian girls > Hawaiian boys
  • Overall delinquency: Filipinos, Hawaiians, Samoans > Japanese
results 2003 2004 three high schools survey1
Results:2003-2004, Three High Schools Survey
  • Community, School, Media:
  • school suspensions
  • + grade-point average
  • - ever been arrested
  • + favorable school attitudes
  • easy access to weapons
  • stressful life events
  • (victimization)
  • - participated in group activity
  • - job in past year
  • Family & Peers:
  • difficulty living w/lots of
  • family members
  • - difficulty getting along
  • w/parents
  • punishment used
  • importance of religion/
  • spirituality to parents
  • peer delinquency (drugs,
  • violence)
  • gang membership/exposure
  • hang out w/friends in trouble
  • - friends not good students
  • - pressure to choose betw.
  • school & friends
  • - dating &/or sexually active
  • - gender roles
  • Youth:
  • substance use
  • self-reported delinquency
  • favorable attitudes to
  • delinquency
  • impulsivity
  • gender (males)
  • low self-esteem
  • - ethnicity (Samoan youths)
  • + ethnic identity = commit
  • ethnic identity = negative
  • affect
  • - ethnic identity = pride
  • - poor physical health
  • recent counseling/MH
  • services

Community, School, Media

Family & Peers

Youth

+ = protective; - = risk

slide26

Future Directions

  • Conduct further research on ethnic identity:
      • Why are there ethnic-group differences in prevalences?
      • How do the quality, frequency, duration, & magnitude of ethnic-identity engagement impact youth violence?
      • What are the similarities & differences in the acculturative process for indigenous Hawaiians vs. later generations of immigrant populations vs. recent immigrants?
      • What does it mean to be “mixed” in ethnicity & ethnic identity, and how does this impact youth violence & why?
  • Conduct longitudinal research to determine causation
  • Develop, implement, &/or evaluate prevention& treatment programs that are responsive to the diversity of Hawai‘i’s people
slide27
State of Hawai‘i Department of HealthFigure 1. Three-year rates* of non-fatal injuries from assaults, all ages, 2003-2005

*Rates are per 1,000 residents as estimated by 2000 U.S. Census

slide28
State of Hawai‘i Department of HealthFigure 2. Three-year rates* of non-fatal injuries from assaults, among children, 2003-2005

*Rates are per 1,000 residents as estimated by 2000 U.S. Census

results 2007 community survey risk protective factors
Demographics

Community

Causes of Youth Violence

Protective Factors

Youth Substance Use

Perceived Support

Physical Health

Religion, Spirituality

Ethnic Identity

Colonialism

Parent Supervision & Involvement

Results: 2007, Community SurveyRisk-Protective Factors
results 2007 community survey risk protective factors1
Results: 2007, Community SurveyRisk-Protective Factors
  • Community Resources:
    • recreation, safety, crime/violence prevention
    • education, health, social services, government satisfaction
    • general community cohesion, community-school cohesion
results 2007 community survey risk protective factors2
Results: 2007, Community SurveyRisk-Protective Factors
  • Good Neighbors:
    • Familiarity and influence of neighbors
    • Community activities and cooperation with neighbors
    • Common community values
ecological model examples of prevention strategies
Ecological Model:Examples of Prevention Strategies
  • Societal
  • Public information
  • Strengthen police and judicial systems
  • Reduce poverty and inequality
  • Community
  • Reducing alcohol availability
  • Identify and refer people at risk for substance abuse or violence
  • Relationship
  • Parenting programmes
  • Home visitation
  • Family therapy
  • Individual
  • Social development programs
  • Cultural enrichment
slide42

Implications

  • The findings highlight the need to implement interventions designed to reduce and prevent drinking and violence.
  • Interventions should factor in:
      • Cultural appropriateness
        • Quality/type of cultural socialization might be key (i.e., commitment vs. pride)
      • Community resources, including schools, churches, health agencies, law enforcement
      • Social networks, including family & peers
      • Youth focused
        • Gender, attitudes, talents (e.g., educational achievement), substance use, etc.
community partnership and mobilization
Community Partnership and Mobilization

High School

Community A

Community

B

School Complex

community work group
Community Work Group

Cultural Groups

Youth Development

Women’s Group

Community Togetherness Meetings

Private Schools

Teen Organizations

Home Associations

Religious Groups

More individuals

& organizations

coming in

Local Business

community meetings
Community Meetings
  • “Facilitating community mobilization for sustainable violence and substance abuse reduction”
  • Training
    • Collective problem-solving
    • Grant writing
    • Fun youth development exercises
  • Resource Sharing
    • Agency/organization presentations
    • Website technical assistance
    • Resource directory and map
  • Program Development
    • Parenting class
    • Youth retreat
work groups at the high school
Work Groups at the High School

Faculty & Staff

Students:

Safe School Task Force

Counselors

work groups at the high school1
Work Groups at the High School

Students:

Safe School Task Force

  • Health Fair
  • Research Development
  • Movie & a Message (M&M) Night 2007
work groups at the high school2
Work Groups at the High School

Counselors

  • Training in therapeutic techniques and programs
  • Counseling Groups
work groups at the high school3
Work Groups at the High School

Faculty & Staff

  • Freshman Jump Start
  • Movie & a Message (M&M) Night
  • Ethnic Studies
  • DOE PDERI Summer Course
slide50

2004-2005,O`ahu High School-Only School-Wide

Jumpstart Day Background

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Outcome of “Violence” (# of times getting into fights within the past 12 months)

Of the 13 variables on the left, we tested to see which ones associated significantly with getting into fight within the last year.

Wanted to address these 5 issues that associated significantly with fighting in skits made by high school students for incoming freshmen. (IDEA PROPSED & DESIGNED BY TEACHERS WORKGROUP)

research and program development
Research and Program Development
  • APIYVPC Core Research & Program Development
    • 2005-2006 = literature reviews
    • 2006-2007 = focus groups, school-wide surveys
    • 2007-2008 = program development
    • 2008-2009 = program implementation & evaluation
    • 2009-2010 = dissemination
program development
Program Development

Examples

School Level

  • Youth: Ethnic Studies; Jump Start; PTP Mentoring Class
  • Peers: Safe Schools Task Force
  • School Level: Challenge Day; Prevent Team; Outreach College for Teacher Training

Peers

Youth

school climate research
School Climate Research
  • Research shows that students in schools with a positive school climate have:
  • Greater academic achievement
  • Lower levels of misconduct
  • Lower levels of violence
  • Lower levels of substance abuse
  • Also, research shows that teachers in schools with a positive school climate have higher job satisfaction.
school climate dimensions
School Climate Dimensions
  • Safety:
  • I feel safe in all areas in and around my school. 64%
  • Students being disruptive keep me from learning. 56%
  • Students threatening other students make it hard to learn. 48%
  • The classrooms and hallways are kept under control. 41%
  • When students are spreading rumors, most of my
  • teachers know what to do to stop it. 33%
  • Relationships:
  • Teachers are fair in dealing with students. 57%
  • The school rules are fairly enforced. 48%
  • Teachers are respected. 38%
  • Most teachers at my school want to stop fights from happening. 84%
  • Most students at my school want to stop fights from happening. 18%
next steps
Next Steps
  • Community: Continue community efforts to address youth violence & development
  • Research: Continue surveillance studies of students in school & community
  • Program: Develop, evaluate, & disseminate an effective, culturally appropriate prevention/intervention program
  • Train: Continue to train teachers, school officials, community members, practitioners, & academicians
  • Dissemination: Disseminate our findings
  • Evaluate: Continue to evaluate & improve the APIYVPC
  • Renew: Renewal application at end 2009
community summary
Community – Summary

Need for unified message

approaches to research with different cultural communities
Approaches to Research with Different Cultural Communities
  • Every community is different—typically very people-dependent
  • Trust & relationships are the cornerstones of university-community/school partnerships
    • universities/researchers may not have a good reputation
  • Assist in research projects that build genuine “good will” & trust
    • cognitive styles instrument & linked with youth violence
approaches to research with different cultural communities1
Approaches to Research with Different Cultural Communities
  • Respect confidentiality not only of individual personal information, but also regarding community stigma & stereotype
    • continually ask for school & community feedback & “permission” to disseminate findings with or without identifying their school/community
  • Be unassuming & patient, but still advocate how the partnership can be a win-win
challenges to program design implementation
Challenges to Program Design & Implementation
  • Epistemology (how knowledge is gained)
    • spiritual, subjective, personal, private
    • empirical (data-driven), objective, public, repeatable
  • Potential Solutions:
    • respect different views; not all may be resolvable
    • try & work within their framework
    • conceptualize the empirical approach as supplemental rather than contradictory
    • use mixed methods (i.e., qualitative & quantitative)
challenges to program design implementation1
Challenges to Program Design & Implementation
  • Control Group (especially randomized)
    • viewed as “unethical” in that it deprives interventions to a sub-group
  • Potential Solutions:
    • note that the “intervention” has not yet been proven
    • use quasi-experimental designs, simplest being pre-post design (try & rule out alternative explanations)
    • use “wait listed” individuals as the comparison group
    • use a “lag” research design model where both groups receive the intervention, but at different points in time
    • use covariates to control for other important factors (e.g., exposure to other variables between pre & post)
challenges to program design implementation2
Challenges to Program Design & Implementation

Pre-

Test 1

Post-

Test 1

Post-

Test 2

Period 1

Period 2

Period 1

Period 2

Group 1

Group 2

Pre-

Test 1

Pre-

Test 2

Post-

Test 1

Pre-

Test 1

Pre/

Post

Post-

Test 1

challenges to program design implementation3
Challenges to Program Design & Implementation
  • Integration of Culture
    • adoption of already-existing “valid” measures & interventions seen as culturally inappropriate
  • Potential Solutions:
    • be patient; factor in time for feedback, modifications, IRB approvals, etc.
    • conduct informal &/or formal interviews & focus groups on more culturally appropriate measures & interventions
      • Year 1 of API Center
    • utilize general ethnic identity measure (Phinney) AND culture-specific identity measures (Hawaiian, Filipino, Samoan, Japanese)
ad