The Chemical Building Blocks

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The Chemical Building Blocks

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1. The Chemical Building Blocks 3.2 Carbohydrates

2. Carbohydrates

3. 2006-2007

4. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo - hydr - ate CH2O (CH2O)x C6H12O6 Function: energy u energy storage raw materials u structural materials Monomer: sugars ex: sugars, starches, cellulose carb = carbon hydr = hydrogen ate = oxygen compoundcarb = carbon hydr = hydrogen ate = oxygen compound

5. Sugars Most names for sugars end in -ose Classified by number of carbons 6C = hexose (glucose) 5C = pentose (ribose) 3C = triose (glyceraldehyde)

7. Sugar structure 5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution

8. Numbered carbons

9. Simple & complex sugars Monosaccharides simple 1 monomer sugars glucose Disaccharides 2 monomers sucrose Polysaccharides large polymers starch

10. Building sugars Dehydration synthesis maltosemaltose

11. Building sugars Synthesis sucrose = table sugarsucrose = table sugar

12. Polysaccharides Polymers of sugars costs little energy to build easily reversible = release energy Function: energy storage starch (plants) glycogen (animals) structure = building materials cellulose (plants) chitin (arthropods & fungi) Polysaccharides are polymers of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides Polysaccharides are polymers of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides

13. Linear vs. branched polysaccharides Can you see the difference between starch & glycogen? Which is easier to digest? Glycogen = many branches = many ends Enzyme can digest at multiple ends. Animals use glycogen for energy storage == want rapid release. Form follows function. APBio/TOPICS/Biochemistry/MoviesAP/05_07Polysaccharides_A.swfCan you see the difference between starch & glycogen? Which is easier to digest? Glycogen = many branches = many ends Enzyme can digest at multiple ends. Animals use glycogen for energy storage == want rapid release. Form follows function. APBio/TOPICS/Biochemistry/MoviesAP/05_07Polysaccharides_A.swf

14. Polysaccharide diversity Molecular structure determines function

15. Digesting starch vs. cellulose Starch = all the glycosidic linkage are on same side = molecule lies flat Cellulose = cross linking between OH (H bonds) = rigid structureStarch = all the glycosidic linkage are on same side = molecule lies flat Cellulose = cross linking between OH (H bonds) = rigid structure

16. Cellulose Most abundant organic compound on Earth herbivores can digest cellulose most carnivores cannot digest cellulose that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients cellulose = roughage Cross-linking between polysaccharide chains: = rigid & hard to digest The digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores. Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach) Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla.Cross-linking between polysaccharide chains: = rigid & hard to digest The digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores. Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach) Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla.

17. Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet The digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores. Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach) Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla. APBioTOPICS/20Biochemistry/MoviesAP/Macromolecule-Lifewire.swf The digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores. Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach) Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla. APBioTOPICS/20Biochemistry/MoviesAP/Macromolecule-Lifewire.swf

18. Helpful bacteria How can cows digest cellulose? bacteria live in their gut & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals

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