Transcription and Translation. From DNA to RNA to protein. Overview. Genes in DNA contain information to make proteins. The cell makes mRNA copies of genes that are needed. The mRNA is read at the ribosomes in the rough ER. Protein is produced. Key Players.
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RNA polymerase is the enzyme responsible for making mRNA copies of genes. DNA unzips at the site of the gene that is needed.
RNA polymerase matches bases in the sense strand with RNA bases, building a strand of mRNA that carries the information encoded in the DNA.
Encoded in DNA is a signal telling RNA polymerase where to stop. Transcription ends at that point.
The completed mRNA molecule then moves from the nucleus to the rough ER for translation.