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Plant Organ Systems. Section 2.2 Homework Pg. 76 #1-6. Quick review. How many organ systems are in a plant? Identify the organs in each of these systems. What are xylem and phloem? How are they similar? How are they different? Cross-section of a leaf:

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plant organ systems

Plant Organ Systems

Section 2.2


Pg. 76 #1-6

quick review
Quick review
  • How many organ systems are in a plant?
  • Identify the organs in each of these systems.
  • What are xylem and phloem?
    • How are they similar?
    • How are they different?
  • Cross-section of a leaf:

plant organ systems1
Plant organ systems


  • photosynthesis
  • support
  • transport substances
  • produce flowers for sexual reproduction


  • anchor the plant
  • absorb water and minerals from soil
  • store food


Dead, hollow tissue

Transports water and minerals upwards from roots


Living tissue

Transports sugars produced by leaves, to the rest of the plant

the importance of water
The importance of water plants:

  • turgor pressure in cells
  • dissolving/transporting nutrients
  • reactant for photosynthesis
transport of water
Transport of Water

Transport of H2O from roots to shoots through the xylem occurs by twoforces, which act in the samedirection:

Water transport

Pushing force

Pulling force

root pressure

capillary action


1) Root pressure: The pushing force

  • Water and dissolved minerals move into roots by osmosis.
    • generates pressure to push water upwards

Tiny root hairs increase the surface area of the root.


2) Capillary action: The pulling force

  • Capillary action - The ability of liquids to move against gravity through narrow spaces

Transpirational Pull

Cohesion and Adhesion

Both of thesefactors influence the water’sability to move up the xylemagainstgravity


Transpiration – The evaporation of water vapour from the leaf, through the stomata

  • pulls on water at the top of the plant

Transpirational pull is felt even at the roots.

How? It is enhanced by the properties of water:

cohesion and adhesion


Allows water to move upwards by capillary action.

Two properties of water:

  • Cohesion
    • Water molecules stick to other water molecules.
    • This is due to dipole – dipole interactions
  • Adhesion
    • Water molecules stick to sides of the xylem.

When do the guard cells close?

  • when the plant cannot afford to lose too much water
    • hot, dry days
    • high wind speeds

Effect of various factors on transpiration

transport of sugars
Transport of sugars
  • What chemical process produces sugars in the plant?


  • Where are these sugars produced?

leaves (palisade cells - chloroplasts)


Plants photosynthesize to convert the Sun’s energy into a useable form - glucose.

CO2+ H2O + light energy glucose + O2

The energy in glucose is then accessed by cellularrespiration(in mitochondria).

glucose + O2 CO2+ H2O + energy

Cells in every part of the plantneed glucose.

Glucose must be transported to all organsof the plant.


Glucose produced in leaves


used right away by nearby cells

stored in the roots (as starch)

transportedto other parts of the plant (as sucrose); used right away

when needed


In the spring, sucrose from the roots flows upward to help nourish leaf buds.

In the summer and fall, leaves produce glucose that moves downward to be stored in the roots.







section 2 2
Section 2.2
  • Concepts to be reviewed:
  • the function and characteristics of the root and shoot systems
  • the function and properties of xylem and phloem tissue
  • the tissues and processes involved in moving water and nutrients
  • the movement and storage of the products of photosynthesis

Read 2.2

  • Pg. 76 #1-6