Kingdom Fungi. Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic Used to be classified in the plant kingdom, but because they lack chlorophyll (don’t photosynthesize), lack roots, stems, or leaves -they are now in their own kingdom “ myc ” – word part refers to a fungus
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Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic
Used to be classified in the plant kingdom, but because they lack chlorophyll (don’t photosynthesize), lack roots, stems, or leaves -they are now in their own kingdom
“myc” – word part refers to a fungus
Fungi are adapted to absorb their food from the environment, reproduce using spores
Over 70,000 fungal species have been identified
1.5 million fungal species are estimated to exist on earth
Kingdom Fungi is very diverse – 4 phyla
Draw a Venn Diagram comparing lichens and mycorrhizae. Include terms such as roots, photosynthesis, and mutualism.
A peach farmer is faced every year with a outbreak of peach scab, a fungal disease of peaches. Every year he sprays his crop carefully with fungicide, but each time these seem less effective than the year before. Why might this be?
Multicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic (make their own food through photosynthesis)
Plants contain chlorophyll – light absorbing pigment that give them their green colour
Plants evolved from green algae (earliest plant fossils date back more than 450 million years ago).
Plants are the start of many terrestrial (land) food chains
Plants supply the earth with much needed oxygen and pump carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere (reduces global warming).
Vascular system: possess by vascular plants – help transport materials within plant – allow plant to grow upright towards the light
Ability to grow upright because of lignin – hardens cells walls to give the plant strength and rigidity (so the plant can grow upright towards the sun)
Reproduction – some plants produce spores, others produce pollen and seeds. Seeds and spores are a storage mechanisms that protects plant embryo
- Allows plants to grows higher off the ground, which can mean better access to sunlight
- Moist environments, because all seedless plants require free-standing water for reproduction
- Pollen grains are tiny (only two cells) and they are blown around by the wind. When pollen counts are too high outdoors, it is difficult to avoid exposure unless you stay inside.
Marine (live in salt water), freshwater species too!
Sessile (don’t move around – stay in one place)
Water pulled in through pores – bring in oxygen and food and as water is removed takes carbon dioxide and wastes with it.
Corals, jellyfish (sea jellies), sea anemones, hydras
Radially symmetrical (no front or back)
Some are sessile – corals, sea anemones and hydras
Some are motile (move around) – sea jellies
One opening for food and wastes
Sea jellies can be very poisonous!
Tapeworms, flukes and planarians
Flat body plan
Have a mouth and an anus (two openings)
Most are parasites!
Mostly parasitic but have numerous free living species
Commonly found in soil, make up an important part of soils
Guinea worm, hookworm and pinworm – are parasites
Aquatic species, both marine and freshwater
Shellfish (clams, oysters, etc), octopus, squid, snails
Octopus – considered the smartest invertebrate
Terrestrial and aquatic species
Segmented body plan
Leeches – parasites
Earthworm – free-living decomposer, hermaphroditic
Most numerous phylum!
Have an exoskeleton
Crustaceans – crabs, lobsters, shrimp, crayfish
Insects – bees, ants, grasshopper, etc.
Arachnids – spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions
Sea stars, sea urchins, feather stars, sea lilies, sand dollars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, etc.
Predatory species commonly found
Can regenerate lost body parts!