Text types
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 19

Text types: PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 70 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Text types:. Argumentation. 1. Argumentation Vs persuasion, explanation and demonstration Argumentation deals with a controversial topic, open for discussion. 2. Persuasion (e.g., in advertising) aims at ↓ inducing behaviour obtaining resulting advantages How?

Download Presentation

Text types:

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Text types

Text types:

Argumentation


Text types

1

Argumentation

Vs

persuasion, explanation and demonstration

Argumentation deals with a controversial topic, open for discussion.


Text types

2

Persuasion (e.g., in advertising)

aims at

inducing behaviour

obtaining resulting advantages

How?

using all available means


Text types

3

Argumentation

aims at

changing beliefs

How?

using rational means

(i.e. discourse)


Text types

4

Explanation

The subject of an explanatory discourse is not contested, i.e. there is no argumentation because this subject is not contested


Text types

5

Demonstration

aims at

providing proof

by means of

normative and strictly specified rules

(reasoning and formal logic)


Text types

6

Natural argumentation

canmake use of

formallogic

and

"recognized" knowledge

but itrestsprimarily

upon

sharedbeliefs

(supposedlysharedbeliefs)


7 organize your text

7. ORGANIZE YOUR TEXT

Writingprocesses:

  • Processes of conceptualization, i.e. activation and organization of ideas;

  • Processesassociatedwith the linguistictranslating, or formulating, of concepts.

    Problemsat the transition from 1 to 2:

    why?

    structure of conceptualrepresentation not necessarilyunidimensional

    whereas

    structure of languagenecessarilylinear.


Text types

8

However:

somelinguistictoolsallow us to structure the linguisticsequence:

e.g. syntactic subordination and coordination, punctuation, anaphorae, connectives.

Argumentative writingrequires the use of complexlinguistictools, especiallyat the structural level of the connexions to beestablishedbetween the content elements.


9 global requirements

9. Global requirements?

  • Recognizing the existence of a conflict between A and B, i.e. recognizing the presence of arguments

  • Taking a claim

  • Supporting the claim

  • Assigning a (minimal) value to the opposite claim

  • Restrictions to both opposing claims


Text types

10

Goingfrom the initial claim to the contradictory claim in a coherentmanner, imposes to respect somegeneralrules of textcontinuity and progression.

The writer has to ensure the argumentative congruence of successive arguments:

- arguments presenting the same orientation shouldbecoordinated,

- arguments withopposite orientation shouldbelinked by an opposite or concessive device.

Sincethere are twodifferentthemes, there must bethematiccontinuity:

- sentences evoking content 1 shouldbeconnected to claim 1,

sentences evoking content 2 shouldbeconnected to claim 2.


Text types

However

the main problem is indeed to manage simultaneously the conceptual and the textual requirement.


Focus on what

Focus on what?

Perspectives on theseissueshavechangedthroughout the years:

the focus on form dates back to 1966

the focus on the writer in 1976

the focus on content in 1986

simultaneously with the content oriented approach came English for Academic Purposes, an academically-oriented approach, which focused on the expectations of academic readers: in this approach, focus on the reader.


Defining argument

DefiningArgument

  • The word derives from the Latin “arguere”='to make clear'. The arguer should learn how and when to use three fundamental argumentative appeals. According to Aristotle, a person who wants to convince another may appeal to that person's reason (logos), ethics (ethos), or emotion (pathos).

  • The writer's job is to weave the various appeals into a single convincing argument in order to create a sound, balanced argument.


To argue

Toargue:

about (intransitive value)

  • discutere; litigare

    • to argue about (o over) money

  • argomentare; ragionare; fornire ragioni

    • to argue for/against something

      (transitive value)

  • sostenere; difendere con argomentazioni

    • to argue a point of view


Text types

Basic goal of argument

to obtain the reader's consent to your central statement, in spite of active resistance.

Consequently, argument may be

writing organised around a clear thesis...which is substantiated logically and through illustration (Pringle and Freedman, 1985)


Text types

  • However, since this definition may be equally applied to exposition, in Crowhurst (1988) argument is also defined as

    that kind of writing which takes a point of view and supports it with either emotional appeals or logical arguments.

    Of course, the writer/locutor has to adjust to the conventions established by the audience they are addressing.


Text types

Boundaries between persuasion and argument:

  • persuasive writing sets out to influence or change an audience's thoughts or actions,

  • an argument is an appeal to a person's sense of reason, emotion and good character.


Text types

People who engage in argumentative discourse

are committed to what they have said or implicated.

But

if thesis statement not successful

maintain the image of people who play by the rules

persuade reader by using very convincing and reliable grounds (supporting details)


  • Login