Text types:. Argumentation. 1. Argumentation Vs persuasion, explanation and demonstration Argumentation deals with a controversial topic, open for discussion. 2. Persuasion (e.g., in advertising) aims at ↓ inducing behaviour obtaining resulting advantages How?
persuasion, explanation and demonstration
Argumentation deals with a controversial topic, open for discussion.
Persuasion (e.g., in advertising)
obtaining resulting advantages
using all available means
using rational means
The subject of an explanatory discourse is not contested, i.e. there is no argumentation because this subject is not contested
by means of
normative and strictly specified rules
(reasoning and formal logic)
canmake use of
Problemsat the transition from 1 to 2:
structure of conceptualrepresentation not necessarilyunidimensional
structure of languagenecessarilylinear.
somelinguistictoolsallow us to structure the linguisticsequence:
e.g. syntactic subordination and coordination, punctuation, anaphorae, connectives.
Argumentative writingrequires the use of complexlinguistictools, especiallyat the structural level of the connexions to beestablishedbetween the content elements.
Goingfrom the initial claim to the contradictory claim in a coherentmanner, imposes to respect somegeneralrules of textcontinuity and progression.
The writer has to ensure the argumentative congruence of successive arguments:
- arguments presenting the same orientation shouldbecoordinated,
- arguments withopposite orientation shouldbelinked by an opposite or concessive device.
Sincethere are twodifferentthemes, there must bethematiccontinuity:
- sentences evoking content 1 shouldbeconnected to claim 1,
sentences evoking content 2 shouldbeconnected to claim 2.
the main problem is indeed to manage simultaneously the conceptual and the textual requirement.
Perspectives on theseissueshavechangedthroughout the years:
the focus on form dates back to 1966
the focus on the writer in 1976
the focus on content in 1986
simultaneously with the content oriented approach came English for Academic Purposes, an academically-oriented approach, which focused on the expectations of academic readers: in this approach, focus on the reader.
about (intransitive value)
Basic goal of argument
to obtain the reader's consent to your central statement, in spite of active resistance.
Consequently, argument may be
writing organised around a clear thesis...which is substantiated logically and through illustration (Pringle and Freedman, 1985)
that kind of writing which takes a point of view and supports it with either emotional appeals or logical arguments.
Of course, the writer/locutor has to adjust to the conventions established by the audience they are addressing.
Boundaries between persuasion and argument:
People who engage in argumentative discourse
are committed to what they have said or implicated.
if thesis statement not successful
maintain the image of people who play by the rules
persuade reader by using very convincing and reliable grounds (supporting details)