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I- User Environment. Aviation meteorology, session 2. ENM – Sep 2008 Franck PITHOIS ENM/PAM. I- User Environment. International Context Aircraft User Organization Measurement Units Altimetry Basics. Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment. 2. 1. International Context.

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i user environment

I- User Environment

Aviation meteorology, session 2

ENM – Sep 2008

Franck PITHOIS ENM/PAM

i user environment1
I- User Environment
  • International Context
  • Aircraft
  • User Organization
  • Measurement Units
  • Altimetry Basics

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

2

1 international context
1. International Context
  • International Civil Aviation Organization
  • Dec. 7, 1944: Chicago Conference (52 states)
  • Wrote a convention covering international civil aviation
  • Founded ICAO (190 member states in 2008)

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

icao s purposes
ICAO\'s purposes
  • Setting out the principles and techniques of international air navigation
  • Promoting and planning the development of safe, reliable, efficient and cost effective air transport.

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

2 aircraft
2. Aircraft

Engine cowling

Leading edge

Wing

Wing tip

Aileron

Flaps

Trailing edge

Elevator

Trim tab

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

aerodynamic forces
Aerodynamic forces

Lift

Thrust

Drag

Relative airflow

Weight

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

relative airflow vr
Relative airflow: VR

Leading edge

Upper surface: underpressure

VR

Lower surface: overpressure

Trailing edge

Link: http://www.av8n.com/how/htm/airfoils.html, for further explanations

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

dynamic study of the forces in presence
Dynamic study of the forces in presence

R : Aerodynamic resultant

Fz

P = Weight

T = Thrust (engine)

Vr

Fx

T

 : Density of air

S : Reference surface

Vr : Aircraft/Air speed

Cx : Coefficient of drag

Cz : Coefficient of lift

P

Lift:

Drag:

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

various aircraft

http://www.mpa80.be/mpa/mpaXpress_fichiers/pigeon.jpg

http://www.preciflight.com/FR/images/ROBIN_120.jpg

http://www.chateau-chassignol.com/montgolfiere/5.jpg

http://www.altibulle.com/portail/images/ulm.gif

Various aircraft

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

3 user organization
3. User Organization
  • Airspace structure (introduction)
  • Different categories of users
  • Two types of flight rules: IFR/VFR
  • Flight safety

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

a airspace structure uir fir
a- Airspace structure: UIR/FIR

http://www.ecacnav.com/images/RVSM%20October%202007%20copy.jpg

In-flight information

In France:

1 UIR

5 FIR

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

vertical structure
Vertical structure

UIR

Infinity

FL660

LTA

LTA

FL195

TMA

FL115

FIR

Sol

  • There are two categories of controlled airspace:
    • Control area: CTR
          • – CTR
    • Control region: CTA
          • – TMA, AWY, LTA & UTA

U

I

R

UTA

F

I

R

AWY

CTR

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

airspace classifications
Airspace classifications
  • - Controlled airspace (classes A, B, C, D & E)
  • Uncontrolled airspace (class F & G)
  • Regulated airspace (marked as R)
  • Dangerous airspace (marked as D)
  • Prohibited airspace (marked as P)

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

examples
Examples

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

b different categories of users
b. Different categories of users

What flies (in France)

  • General aviation traffic
  • Military aviation traffic
    • Operational military aviation traffic
    • Flight tests and aircraft acceptance

Airport operations (in France)

  • Airport services: Air navigation…
  • Airport operators: Chambers of Commerce & Industry, companies…

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

general aviation traffic
General Aviation Traffic
  • Commercial aviation
  • Government and military aviation
  • Business and recreational aviation

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

commercial aviation
Commercial aviation

Flights operated by international, domestic and regional airlines carrying passengers and cargo.

Performance by type of propulsion:

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

government and military aviation
Government and military aviation
  • Presidential or ministerial flights
  • Customs service
  • Civil protection
  • SFACT (Aeronautical training and technical inspection service)
  • Carrying passengers and cargo

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

business and recreational aviation
Business and recreational aviation

Private flights: public transport other than scheduled flights and express cargo

Recreational aviation: motorized (airplanes + helicopters), gliders, free flight, ULM, skydiving and ballooning.

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

c two types of flight rules ifr vfr
c. Two types of flight rules: IFR/VFR

Defined in line with IMC/VMC weather conditions

IFR: Instrument Flight Rules

VFR: Visual Flight Rules

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

slide21
IFR
  • Suitably equipped aircraft
  • Qualified crew (professional)
  • Aircraft guidance using radio navigation equipment
  • Procedures to follow (air traffic control)
  • Radio communication equipment fitted

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

slide22
IFR
  • Commercial aviation type flights, implying:
  • Safety and reliability
  • Different weather conditions during different phases of the flight: take off, cruising, landing

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

slide23
VFR
  • Less sophisticated aircraft equipment
  • Generally a relatively less qualified crew (amateur)
  • More restrictive visibility and ceiling conditions
  • Subject to weather conditions

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

different types of vfr
Different types of VFR
  • "Regular" VFR
  • Special VFR: excluding VMC conditions, low altitude
  • Night VFR: specific qualifications
  • VFR on TOP: flight above the clouds

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

d flight safety international statistics
d. Flight safety: International statistics

Since 1999, the ICAO only keeps records on accidents involving aircraft with a certified maximum take off weight in excess of 2,250 kg

The total of death is quite egal despite a bigger trafic every year

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

passenger fatalities on scheduled flights
Passenger fatalities on scheduled flights

Excluding accidents due to illicit intervention

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

aircraft categories involved in accidents
Aircraft categories involved in accidents

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

occurrences
Occurrences

Source : DGAC

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

4 measurement units
4. Measurement Units

Horizontal distances: Nautical Mile (NM = 1852 m)

Horizontal speeds: Knots (KT)

Vertical distances: Feet (FT=0.3048 m)

Standard Flight Levels: 850 (FL050), 700 (FL100), 500 (FL180), 300 (FL300), 250 (FL340), 200 (FL390).

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

5 altimetry basics
5. Altimetry basics
  • Principle
  • A Reminder on Altitudes
  • ICAO standard atmosphere
  • Altimeter
  • Altimeter settings

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

a principle
a. Principle
  • Defining the altitude-pressure relationship in the vertical distance or elevation sense
  • Resolving problems relating to determining vertical distances from pressure measurements.

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

b reminder altitudes
b. Reminder: Altitudes

height

runway

Height: The vertical distance between any point or level taken in relation to a reference point.

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

b reminder altitudes1
b. Reminder: Altitudes

altitude

sea

runway

Altitude: The vertical distance between any point or level Above Mean Sea Level (AMSL)

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

c icao standard atmosphere 1 4
c. ICAO standard atmosphere (1/4)
  • A fictitious atmosphere defined up to an altitude of 32 km:
  • Air is a perfect gas with an invariable chemical composition
  • Air is dry (Tv= T)
  • Gravity acceleration is constant: g= 9.80665m/s²

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

c icao standard atmosphere 2 4
c.ICAOstandardatmosphere(2/4)
  • - A vertical temperature gradient that is constant for each of the following intervals:
      • 0 to 11 km: gradient of T = -0.65°C/100 m or 2°C /1000 ft
      • 11 to 20 km: gradient of T= 0° (T = - 56.5°C)
      • 20 to 32 km: gradient of T = 1°C/1000 m

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

c icao standard atmosphere 3 4
c.ICAOstandardatmosphere(3/4)
  • Pressure at sea level is 1013.25 hPa
  • Temperature at sea level is 15°C or 288°k

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

c icao standard atmosphere 4 4
c.ICAOstandardatmosphere(4/4)

Graphic representations

Z= f(T)

Z= f(P)

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

d altimeter operation
d. Altimeter: Operation

The instrument itself comprises aneroid capsules that are sensitive to pressure variations.

The measured pressure level is directly translated into a vertical distance in line with the standard atmospheric rule.

Graduated in feet, 1 ft = 0.3048 m

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

d altimeter description
d. Altimeter: Description

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

e altimeter settings why they were created
e. Altimeter settings: Why they were created

1 Runway tour

2 Local flight

3 Moving

D

A

Height

Altitude

Reference altitude

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

e altimeter settings
e. Altimeter settings
  • QFE
  • QNH
  • 1013

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

slide42
QFE

Equivalent atmospheric pressure at the aerodrome\'s official altitude.

For a pilot this is the setting pressure that corresponds to a ZERO indication on their altimeter when their wheels touch down.

The setting reference is the runway.

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

calculating qfe
Calculating QFE

The pressure measured by the barometer brought back to the official runway altitude thanks to an altitude correction.

QFE = P(Station reference altitude) + dP

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

using qfe
Using QFE

During takeoff or landing phases for aerodromes located above 600 meters.

The altimeter provides the height in relation to the runway.

It is used less and less.

Advantage: when the plane touches the runway, the altimeter indicates ZERO.

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

slide45
QNH

Station pressure returned to sea level by applying a standard correction.For pilots, this setting gives them the flight or runway altitude in relation to sea level.In a standard atmosphere, the setting reference for QNH is the sea.

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

calculating qnh
Calculating QNH

QNH= P(station reference altitude)+dP’

Correction calculated just like QFEin standard atmosphere

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

using qnh
Using QNH
  • More and more often used for it offers many advantages:
    • Routes through mountain ranges.
    • Takeoff and landing from aerodromes.
    • Precise position at the auto-information stage.
    • A good approximation of the plane\'s true altitude.
    • Used under the transition altitude.

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

setting 1013
Setting 1013

Used to separate aircraft at their cruising altitude.

Isobar surfaces

Fl 65

Fl 60

Fl 55

1013

Fl 50

0 ft

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

setting to use uncontroled airspace

FL 70

FL 60

FL 50

1013 settings, flight level indications

FL 45

3000 ft AGL

FL 40

FL 35

FL 30

QNH (or QFE) settings

3000 ft AMSL

Setting to use: Uncontroled airspace

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

setting to use controlled airspace
Setting to use: Controlled airspace

FL 90

FL 80

1013 settings, flight level indications

FL 70

FL 60

Transition zone

FL 50

QNH settings, ‘Z’ indications

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

exercise
Exercise
  • What is the lowest flight level that can be chosen to overfly an obstacle at an elevation of 3800 ft?
  • When QNH is:
  • 1033 hPa
  • 993 hPa
  • 1013 hPa
  • Remember to add a safety margin of 500 ft!
  • 1 hPa = 28 ft

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

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