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### Chapter Two:Elementary Weaves (Fundamental Weaves)

2.1 General Characteristics.

2.2 Plain Weave

2.3 Twill Weaves

2.4 Sateen/Satin Weaves

2.1 General Characteristics.

- 1. The shift of the weaves is constant.
- 2. The fundamental weaves are such weaves in which every warp and every weft thread within the repeat overlaps or is overlapped only by one thread of the opposite system. It means that, in fundamental weaves any weft or warp thread must have only one warp or weft overlapping within the repeat.

2.2 Plain Weave

- 1）concept: This is the simplest weave. In this weave the threads interlace in alternate order, i.e. the first warp thread overlaps the first weft thread (Fig. 2.1) and passes under the second weft thread, and the second warp thread passes under the first weft thread and overlaps the second one, and so on.

Fig. 2.1 Plan weave and section diagram

- 2）Parameters: Repeat (R)= 2,Shift (S)= 1
- 3) Weaving plan: straight draft or skip straight and tappet shedding is enough.
- 4) Properties: The fabric made from plain weave is firmer and stronger.
- 5) Applications: poplin, voile, lawn, flannel, panama, crepe etc.

2.3 Twill Weaves

- 1) Concept:

The most characteristic of twill is that they have diagonal lines on the cloth.

2）Parameters:

- R ≥3; So =Sy =±1
- The twill weaves are expressed in the form of a fraction. The numerator of the fraction is equal to the number of warp overlaps and the denominator is equal to the number of weft overlaps within the repeat. The sum of the numerator and denominator of this fraction is the repeat of the twill.

Such as 3/1, 1/3, 2/1, 4/1.

- Some concept about the twill weaves:
- warp-face twill,
- weft-face twill,
- right-hand twill,
- left-hand twill.

Weft-face & right-hand twill

R=4

Sy=1

Warp-face &left-hand twill

R=4

Sy=-1

3) Weave diagram drawn

Example : Draw a twill weave of 2/1↗

- ① Calculating the repeat R, drawing the outline, and giving the number.
- ② Drawing the first end according to the fraction given.
- ③Drawing the other ends depended on the shift.

a: repeat R=3, and draw the outline

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b: draw the first end

c: and the other ends

4) Weaving plan

- Straight draft
- 5) Properties:
- Good aesthetic properties;
- Used for ornamentation;
- Softer than plain weaves

6) Applications:

- denim, jean, flannel, gabardine, whipcord, glen check, drill.

Same samples

T/C Blended twill

Home work:

1. Drawing the following weave diagrams, and indicates the warp face twill or weft face twill.

1/3↗, 4/1↖ 2/1↗ , 3/1↗

2. Listing 5 fabrics made from plain weave and 5 fabrics made from twill weave.

2.4 Sateen/Satin Weaves

- 1）concept:

The characteristic of the sateen/satin weave is that they have a smoothness and lustrous fabric surface.

Sateen weaves have a weft effect and satin weaves have a warp effect

2) parameters:

R ≥5 and R≠6

1 ﹤ S ﹤(R-1)

R and S must be expressed by prime numbers

- The sateen weave is denoted by a fraction. But the meaning is different from that of twill. The numerator of this fraction is equal to the repeat of weave. The denominator is equal to the shift (Sy) of overlaps.

Examples:

A ―Sateen 5/3 B ― sateen 7/3

- And they are also called 5 ends(5 shafts) sateen and 7 ends (7 shafts) sateen.

Figures A, B represent sateen 5/3 and 7/3.

3) weave drawn:

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①Drawing the outline according to the repeat, and giving the number of the threads.

② Drawing the first end or pick. (Satin for first end, sateen for first pick).

③Drawing the other ends or picks according to the shift

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Here is an example of 5/3 satin

4) Weaving plan

Straight draft

- 5) Properties: softness, smoothness, lustrous.
- 6) Applications: satin-back gabardine, doeskin cloth, satin-back crepe, satin drill, light weight linings, slippers, bridal gowns.

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