Sustainability in human factors
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Sustainability in Human Factors. Leonidas G uadalupe. Overview. Introduction What is Sustainability in Human Factors? Why is it important? Basics How does it work? Application of Learning Examples Who has done it?. Introduction. What is Sustainability in Human Factors?

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Sustainability in human factors

Sustainability in Human Factors

Leonidas Guadalupe


Overview

Overview

  • Introduction

    • What is Sustainability in Human Factors?

    • Why is it important?

  • Basics

    • How does it work?

  • Application of Learning

  • Examples

    • Who has done it?


Introduction

Introduction

What is Sustainability in Human Factors?

Why is it important?


Some history first

Some History First

  • 1972 - Limits to Growth

    • Hit planetary boundaries in early 21st century

  • 1987 – The WCED defined “sustainable development”

    • "meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”*

  • 1992 –Rio UN Earth Summit

    • Create Commission for Sustainable Development**

  • 2002 - Limits to Growth 30 yr update

Sustainability as Opportunity Richard B. HowarthLand Economics, Vol. 73, No. 4, Defining Sustainability (Nov., 1997), pp. 569-579 Published by: University of Wisconsin Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3147246

**Zink, K.J., Steimle, U, & Fischer, K. (2008). Human factors, business excellence and corporate sustainability: differing perspectives, joint objectives . Physica-Verlag HD.


Basic definitions

Basic Definitions

  • Sustainability = Relating to a method of using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged.*

  • Human factors is the scientific discipline that studies how people interact with devices, products, and systems.**

*sustainability. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved February 16, 2010, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sustainability

**Human factors is the scientific discipline that studies how people interact with devices, products, and systems.


Compound concept

Compound Concept

  • Sustainability in Human Factors focuses on how people interact with devices, products, and systems without depleting or permanently damaging a resource.


It is not

It is not!

  • Green-washing is a superficial or insincere display of concern for the environment that is shown by an organization.*

    • SC Johnson Greenlist –Windex

  • Environmentally friendly and Eco-friendly are synonyms used to refer to goods and services considered to inflict minimal harm on the environment

  • Eco-Design is the reduction of environmental impacts throughout entire product life cycles by improved product design. **

*Greenwashing. (n.d.) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. (2003). Retrieved February 17 2010 from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Greenwashing

**Schischke, K, Hagelüken, M, & Steffenhagen, G. (2005, October 19). An Introduction to ecodesign strategies – why, what and how?. Retrieved from http://www.ecodesignarc.info/servlet/is/707/


Importance

Importance

*

  • Any system without resource replenishment is not sustainable.

*

*World Wildlife Federation (2008). Living Planet Report. Gland, Switzerland.


Basics

Basics

How does it work?


The goal

The Goal

  • Make Non-Eco-Friendly consumers decrease consumption of a resource and increase replenishment of a resource.

    • This applies to rich and poor people.

    • This applies to all levels of the supply chain.


Pro environmental behaviors

Pro-environmental behaviors

  • Curtailment Behaviors - involve repetitive efforts to* reduce energy use

    • Ex. Lowering thermostat settings

    • Ex. Continually ensuring that lights are turned off in unoccupied rooms.

  • Efficiency Behaviors - are one-shot behaviors*

    • Ex. Purchase of energy efficient equipment

    • Ex. Upgrading as insulation.

*Abrahamse W., Steg L., Vlek C., Rothengatter T. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation (2005) Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25 (3), pp. 273-291.


Curtailment vs efficiency q

Curtailment vs. Efficiency (Q)

  • Which behavior is more common? Why?

  • Which is more effective? Why?

  • Give an example of a curtailment behavior and its efficiency behavior counterpart.

*Abrahamse W., Steg L., Vlek C., Rothengatter T. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation (2005) Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25 (3), pp. 273-291.


Curtailment vs efficiency a

Curtailment vs. Efficiency (A)

  • Curtailment is more common because the investment is lower.

  • Efficiency is more effective because the action does not have to be repeated

  • I want to consume less gasoline. Curtailment: I coast when I drive, and continuously check the condition of my tires. Efficiency: I buy a hybrid automobile.

*Abrahamse W., Steg L., Vlek C., Rothengatter T. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation (2005) Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25 (3), pp. 273-291.


Rebound effect

Rebound Effect

  • As technology improves, equipment becomes more energy efficient.

  • Less energy is needed to produce the same amount of product

  • However, because the equipment has become more energy efficient, the cost per unit of service falls.

  • Consumption of that service then goes up.

  • The rebound effect can reduced efficiency gained by 0-30%

Berkhout, P. H. G., Muskens, J. C., & Velthuijsen, J. W. (2000). Defining the rebound effect. Energy Policy, 28(6/7), 425–432.


Decision making biases

Decision Making Biases

  • Framing of information*

    • Insulation study

      • Ex. “dollars not wasted” vs. “dollars saved”

  • Risk Perception**

    • Communicate the risk of not committing to sustainability appropriately.

  • Objective measures***

    • Communicate how to properly measure

      • Ex. More people responded to whatever solution is more salient

*Yates as cited in Gardner, G. T., & Stern, P. C. (1996). Environmental Problems and Human-Behavior. Boston: Pearson.

** Gardner, G. T., & Stern, P. C. (1996). Environmental Problems and Human-Behavior. Boston: Pearson.

***Flemming, S., Hilliard, A., Jamieson, G.: The Need for Human Factors in the Sustainability Domain. In: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting (2008)


Decision making biases cont

Decision Making Biases (cont.)

  • Control over the situation***

    • Minimize the scale of the problem

      • Ex. Low insurance purchases in hazard areas

  • Information supply**

    • Provide clear and relevant information

      • Ex. People not taking advantage of eco-subsidies

** Gardner, G. T., & Stern, P. C. (1996). Environmental Problems and Human-Behavior. Boston: Pearson.

***Flemming, S., Hilliard, A., Jamieson, G.: The Need for Human Factors in the Sustainability Domain. In: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting (2008)


Strategies to elicit behaviors

Strategies to Elicit Behaviors

  • Antecedent Strategies influence behavior by first modifying underlying determinants of behavior

    • Educating the consumers

      • Pamphlets, workshops, mass media

  • Consequence Strategies establish positive or negative consequences to behaviors

    • Give relevant useful feedback to consumers.

      • Meters, Counters

*Abrahamse W., Steg L., Vlek C., Rothengatter T. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation (2005) Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25 (3), pp. 273-291.


Potty break

Potty Break

http://www.yankodesign.com/2010/01/20/all-in-one-loo-with-a-reason/


Application of learning s

Application of Learning's

  • What is the counter behavior to buying this?

  • Rebound effect if any? If so, how do I compensate.

  • What are some biases I have to overcome?

  • How do I apply my strategies?

http://www.yankodesign.com/2010/01/20/all-in-one-loo-with-a-reason/


Application answers

Application Answers

  • Curtailing behaviors would be to turn off water while brushing teeth or while lathering in the shower.

  • Could increase water consumption. Provide feedback on water wasted.

  • Control over the situation & Frame information

    • NOT- Help save the oceans.

    • GOOD- Control water consumption of your toilet.

    • NOT- Save water

    • GOOD – Increase bathroom space

http://www.psfk.com/2010/01/pics-home-core-futuristic-bathroom-concept-helps-conserve-water.html


Application answers 2

Application Answers (2)

  • New product so both strategies will be needed

    • Consequence Strategies

      • Feedback

        • NOT: Red/Green button to store water

        • Better: How many gallons are stored

        • GOOD: How many flushes are stored

    • Antecedent Strategies

      • Educate consumers

        • NOT: Product will help save marine ecosystems that are gradually disappearing

        • BETTER: Product will save 19 gallons of water per day.

        • GOOD: keeping flush tank full will eliminate 40% of current water usage in your household.

http://www.psfk.com/2010/01/pics-home-core-futuristic-bathroom-concept-helps-conserve-water.html


Examples

Examples

Who has done it?


Nike sustainability timeline

Nike Sustainability Timeline

  • 1993 - Nike’s Reuse-A-Shoe program launch

    • turn spent footwear into sport surfaces.

  • 2002 – Eco-Tech Project Begins

  • 2005 – Nike Considered Boot released

  • 2008 – Jordan XXIII is released


Eco tech

ECO-TECH

  • Analyzing of how to achieve human factors with new eco-goals.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qp1zV-k5NSM&feature=related


Nike considered boot

Nike Considered Boot

  • Uses materials found primarily within 200 miles of the Nike factory

  • 80-percent less toxic solvent usage for adhesion due to an inter-locking sole and a welt stitch

  • Reduces the number of production steps to improve factory energy efficiency

  • Optimizes material layout to reduce waste in the cutting process

  • Designed for recycling, notably in Nike’s Reuse-a-Shoe recovery program

Aligned for Sustainable Design An A-B-C-D Approach to Making Better Products. BSR.org


Jordan xxiii

Jordan XXIII

  • 23 is the last Jumpman

    • (Jordan wore #23)

  • Retail price was $230

    • Usual Jumpman price $185

  • “During fiscal 2009, the increase in U.S. footwear revenue was the result of low-single digit growth in both unit sales and average selling price per pair. The growth in unit sales was primarily driven by higher demand for our Jordan brand, action sports and kids’ products.” – 2009 Annual report

  • Increased margin + Increased Demand = $$$

http://www.sneakerfiles.com/air-jordans/air-jordan-xx3-23/

http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/10/100529/AnnualReport/nike-sh09-rev2/docs/Nike_2009_10-K.pdf


Sustainability in human factors

http://www.google.com/powermeter

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Dx38hzRWDQ&feature=player_embedded


Questions

Questions?


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