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Reconstruction. President Lincoln's Last Public Address: Speech on Reconstruction April 11, 1865 .

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  • We meet this evening, not in sorrow, but in gladness of heart. The evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond, and the surrender of the principal insurgent army, give hope of a righteous and speedy peace whose joyous expression can not be restrained… By these recent successes the re-inauguration of the national authority--reconstruction--which has had a large share of thought from the first, is pressed much more closely upon our attention. It is fraught with great difficulty. Unlike a case of a war between independent nations, there is no authorized organ for us to treat with. No one man has authority to give up the rebellion for any other man. We simply must begin with, and mould from, disorganized and discordant elements… I have been shown a letter on this subject…in which the writer expresses regret that my mind has not seemed to be definitely fixed on the question whether the seceding States, so called, are in the Union or out of it…We all agree that the seceded States, so called, are out of their proper relation with the Union; and that the sole object of the government, civil and military, in regard to those States is to again get them into that proper practical relation.




Freedmen s bureau seen through southern eyes
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen adjust to new circumstances. Through Southern Eyes


Freedmen s bureau school
Freedmen’s Bureau School adjust to new circumstances.


  • B. Lincoln’s plan opposed by Congress, adjust to new circumstances.

  • they offered the Wade-Davis Bill.

    • Military governors rule Southern states

    • If 50% of voters in a state took the oath, statehood would be re-established



  • C. VP Andrew Johnson’s plan: adjust to new circumstances.

    • Confederate leaders and wealthy Southerners would have to ask presidential permission to take the loyalty oath.


"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude...shall exist within the United States." The 13th Amendment was passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865.



Iii southern reaction to reconstruction
III. Southern Reaction to Reconstruction adjust to new circumstances.

  • Many whites in the South did everything they could to stop African Americans from gaining full equality & social status.

  • Former Confederate officials were elected to public office as soon as they were eligible



  • Vagrancy Laws in the South laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans

  • All freedmen...over the age of eighteen years, found on the second Monday in January, 1866, or thereafter, with no lawful employment or business, or found unlawfully assembling themselves together, either in the day or night time, and all white persons so assembling with freedmen...shall be deemed vagrants, and on conviction thereof shall be fined in the sum of not exceeding in the crease of a freedman...fifty dollars, and a white man two hundred dollars, and imprisoned at the discretion of the court....

  • And in case of any freedman...shall fail for five days after the imposition of any fine...for violation of this act...it shall be ...the duty of the sheriff...to hire out said freedman...to any person who will, for the shortest period of service, pay said fines....


  • 1.  Common provisions: laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans

    • Blacks required to sign annual labor contracts, with penalties imposed

    • Children were subject to compulsory apprenticeship and corporal punishments by masters

    • Vagrants could be sold into private service if they could not pay severe fines.


The KKK was in decline from 1868 to 1870 and was destroyed in the early 1870s by President Ulysses S. Grant's vigorous action under the Civil Rights Act of 1871


The invisible empire of the south
The Invisible Empire of the South African Americans and keep them from voting.


Iv the final accepted plan radical reconstruction
IV. The final, accepted, plan: Radical Reconstruction African Americans and keep them from voting.

  • 14th Amendment defined citizenship & overturned Dred Scott. States required to provide equal protection under the law to all persons (not only to citizens).

  • Southern states that didn’t ratify the 14th Amendment were divided into five military districts.





V attack on the presidency
V. Attack on the Presidency Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags)

  • Johnson opposed the Radical plans, angering Congress

  • In retaliation, Congress attempted to impeach him.

    • Tenure of Office Act, requiring Senate approval to remove Cabinet officials, which Johnson violated.

    • Johnson was one vote short of conviction in (35-19)


  • C. Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags)The inability of Radicals to impeach Johnson preserved the balance of power b/w the executive and legislative branches


Vi the end of reconstruction
VI. The End of Reconstruction Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags)

  • A. Republican Party interest in Reconstruction shrank as old abolitionists were replaced by liberal Republicans with different interests.


  • B. Compromise of 1877 Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags)

    • Removed all federal troops from the South

    • Republican governments turned out of state offices

  • Reconstruction officially over. Former slaves would not get any additional help from the federal gov’t.


Vii the new south
VII. The New South Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags)

  • A. Labor shortages on the old plantations prompted a new labor system – sharecropping

    • Crop – lien system- In order to buy supplies the sharecroppers would promise to pay for goods when their crops came in.

    • This kept African Americans and poor whites in a kind of economic slavery, tied to the land because of debts.


Sharecropping in the south 1880
Sharecropping in the South Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags), 1880


Tenancy & the Crop Lien System Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags)


  • B. Industrial growth in the South Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags) factories built to diversify economy


  • C. Americans, northern Republicans (called carpetbaggers), and Southern Republicans (called scalawags)Rise of Jim Crow laws- "separate but equal" status for African Americans. Meaning inferior treatment & accommodations for blacks.



  • 3. voting. Plessy v. Ferguson- upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation, under the doctrine of "separate but equal".


  • D. Responses to the Jim Crow Era voting.

    • Booker T. Washington- publicly called for cooperation with southern whites. Equality would come when African Americans were economically independent.

    • W.E.B. duBois- urged African Americans to work for full equality immediately and not to go along with segregation.


During six weeks of the months of March and April just past, twelve colored men were lynched in Georgia, the reign of outlawry culminating in the torture and hanging of the colored preacher, Elijah Strickland, and the burning alive of Samuel Wilkes, alias Hose, Sunday, April 23, 1899.

The real purpose of these savage demonstrations is to teach the Negro that in the South he has no rights that the law will enforce.


Group test
Group Test Americans through protest and editorials.

  • In order to receive fulfill this assignment you must:

    • 1. Your committee must form a workable solution to the problem.

    • 2. In character, create a memo to President Johnson, recommending a specific policy regarding African Americans. Explain why you think this policy is appropriate for the time period.


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