Chapter 20 the cold war postwar changes 1945 1970
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Chapter 20- the Cold War & Postwar Changes 1945-1970. 20.2- The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union & Eastern Europe. Main Ideas As Soviet leader, Khrushchev initiated policies of de-Stalinization

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Chapter 20- the Cold War & Postwar Changes 1945-1970

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Chapter 20- the Cold War & Postwar Changes 1945-1970

20.2- The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

The Soviet Union & Eastern Europe

  • Main Ideas

    • As Soviet leader, Khrushchev initiated policies of de-Stalinization

    • The Soviet Union faced revolts and protests in its attempt to gain and maintain control over Eastern Europe

  • Key Terms

    • heavy industry- the manufacture of machines and equipment for factories and mines

    • de-Stalinization- the process of eliminating some of Stalin’s ruthless policies

The Reign of Stalin

  • The economy of the Soviet Union was devastated by World War II

  • Stalin used harsh tactics to control every aspect of Soviet society

    • all literary and scientific work had to conform to the political needs of the state

    • goods were produced almost exclusively for export

    • money from export goods was used to buy machinery and Western technology

The Reign of Stalin

  • By the end of the 1950s the Soviet Union a became world power

    • new power plants, canals, and giant factories

    • heavy industryincreased

    • the testing of the hydrogen bomb in 1953

    • the launch of the first space satellite Sputnik I in 1957

  • Stalin died in 1953

The Khrushchev Era

  • After Stalin’s death, Nikita Khrushchev became the chief policy maker in the Soviet Union

The Khrushchev Era

  • Under Khrushchev, de-Stalinization was put in place

    • condemned Stalin for his “administrative violence, mass repression, and terror”

    • loosened government controls on literature

    • placed emphasis on producing consumer goods

    • the government destroyed pictures and statues of Stalin

    • places named after Stalin, such as Stalingrad and Stalin Peak, were renamed during this program to dishonor Stalin

The Khrushchev Era

  • Khrushchev was forced into retirement in 1964

    • his foreign policy in Cuba failed

    • attempts to increase agricultural output failed

    • the industrial growth rate also declined

Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain

  • After World War II, Soviet-controlled Communist governments took control of Eastern European countries

  • Eastern European satellite states instituted Soviet-type five-year plans with emphasis on heavy industry

    • They began to collectivize agriculture

    • They set up secret police and military forces

Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain

  • Exceptions to the pattern of Soviet dominance:

    • Albania, the Communist government grew increasingly independent of the Soviet Union

    • Yugoslavia, led by Tito, was an independent Communist state until Tito’s death in 1980.

Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain

  • Revolts against communism

    • After Stalin’s death many Eastern European states tried to make reforms

    • The Soviet Union, however, made it clear that it would not allow its Eastern European satellites to become independent

    • In 1956 revolts against communism erupted in Poland, and a series of reforms were adopted

    • Fearful of a Soviet armed response, however, the Poles pledged to remain loyal to the Warsaw Pact

Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain

  • Imre Nagy

    • Hungarian leader

    • declared Hungary a free nation in 1956

    • Soviet troops attacked Budapest and reestablished control of the country

  • Alexander Dubček

    • first secretary of the Communist party in Czechoslovakia

    • introduced reforms to the country, including freedom of speech and press

    • the Soviet Army invaded Czechoslovakia, crushed the reform movement, and reestablished Soviet control

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