Deterrence and the death penalty
Download
1 / 95

Deterrence and the Death Penalty - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 489 Views
  • Updated On :

Deterrence and the Death Penalty. Llad Phillips. Outline. The Death Penalty Arguments Philosophical and moral (lexicographic ordering) Practical: Is it a deterrent? Impact on the criminal justice system: Detention (prison building era) dominates Operation of the Death Penalty

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Deterrence and the Death Penalty' - deva


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • The Death Penalty

    • Arguments

      • Philosophical and moral (lexicographic ordering)

      • Practical: Is it a deterrent?

        • Impact on the criminal justice system: Detention (prison building era) dominates

  • Operation of the Death Penalty

  • Homicide and Executions


Slide3 l.jpg

VI. Lecture Six: “Deterrence and the Death Penalty”,

Professor Phillips

Ch. 10 (P&V) "Isolating Deterrence Using the

Simultaneous Equation System"

References: Gary Becker, "Crime and Punishment:

An Economic Approach" Journal of Political Economy,

March/April 1968 (RBR)



What purpose did the execution serve l.jpg
What purpose did the execution serve?

  • Deterrence? Other Saddams? (The Hague)

  • Detention? No

  • Rehabilitation? No

  • Retribution?


Slide7 l.jpg

1976

Supreme

Court

Reinstates

Death

Penalty


Economic conditions and crime l.jpg
Economic Conditions and Crime

  • California Crime Index Levels Off in the New Millenium





Damages us violence 1993 l.jpg
Damages: US Violence, 1993

Source: National Institute of Justice, Victim Costs and Consequences (1996)


Increase in ca homicides l.jpg
Increase in CA Homicides

  • 2002 to 2003: at least 10 more homicides

    • @$1,191,000, increased damages of $11.9 million, minimum

  • 2003: 2402 homicides, 6.7/100,000

    • @$1,191,000, total damages of $ 2.86 billion

  • 2004: 2392 homicides, 6.5/100,000

  • 2005: 2503 homicides, 6.8/100,000

http://caag.state.ca.us/


Slide17 l.jpg

Schematic of the Criminal Justice System

Causes ?

Weak Link

Offense

Rate Per

Capita

Crime Generation

Expected

Cost of

Punishment

(detention,

deterrence)

Expenditures

Crime Control


Questions about crime l.jpg
Questions About Crime

  • Does the Expected Severity of Punishment Deter Crime?

    • expected severity = probability of punishment * severity of punishment

      • e.g. in LA County: 0.005*death penalty

  • Why Do We Keep Building Prisons at Great Expense to Warehouse Convicts?

    • Doesn’t deterrence work?

    • Do we have to rely on detention?


Controversy about the death penalty l.jpg
Controversy About the Death Penalty

  • Death penalty is the most severe sentence.

    • Does it deter crime?

      • Opponents of the death penalty say no.

        • Their evidence? Critiques of studies that indicate the death penalty is a deterrent.

  • Why are so few murderers who receive the death sentence executed in California?

    • Death sentence appeases the proponents.

    • Few executions appeases the opponents.


Slide22 l.jpg

France was the

last Western

European Country

to abandon the

death Penalty in

1977




Executions in the us 1930 2007 l.jpg
Executions in the US 1930-2007

http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs

Peak to Peak: About 65 years


Bureau of justice statistics l.jpg
Bureau of Justice Statistics

Peak to Peak: 50 years


Slide28 l.jpg

Nikolai Kondratieff (1892-1938)

Brought to attention in

Joseph Schumpeter’s Business

Cycles (1939)


Slide29 l.jpg

2008-2014:

Hard Winter


Policy impact of opponents to the death penalty l.jpg
Policy Impact of Opponents to the Death Penalty

  • As an instrument for crime control, deterrence has been a casualty of the argument about the death penalty.

    • The argument: if the death penalty does not deter murderers, then deterrence must not work as a control.

  • As a consequence, society relies more and more on detention for crime control.

    • Society builds more and more prisons.


Homicide in los angeles county l.jpg
Homicide in Los Angeles County

  • 1990-1994: 9442 homicides

  • Increasing number of gang murders

    • > 40 % of the total

  • Only 1 in 3 murders leads to punishment

    • gang killings are harder to solve





Slide36 l.jpg

Branching Diagram

unsolved

46%

other

9442 homicides

in LA County

13%

54%

dismissed

or not guilty

solved

87%

32%

arrest and

prosecution

(47%)

68%

guilty (32%)


Slide37 l.jpg

Branching Diagram, Continued

dismissed

or not guilty

Manslaughter

15 years to life

(7.0%)

50%

Guilty (32%)

25 years to life

(5.0%)

50%

1st & 2nd degree

murder (16%)

life without parole

(3.5%)

3.1%

death sentence

( 0.5%)


Slide39 l.jpg

Stable

Down

Up


Slide40 l.jpg

Who has benefited the most

from the decline in the homicide

rate in the nineties?


Slide41 l.jpg

Who is the victim, family, friend

or stranger?

http://caag.state.ca.us/ Homicide in California, 1998





Slide46 l.jpg

Administration of Capital Sentences in the US

Stock

Outflow

Inflow

Prisoners on

Death Row

Sentenced to Death

Sentences

Commuted,

Executions



The death penalty in california l.jpg
The Death Penalty in California

  • Fourteen persons were executed between 1978 and 2009

  • In January 2009, there were 677 convicts on death row




Slide60 l.jpg

Gas

Chamber


Slide61 l.jpg

Split Personality Behaviors

Jack Hirshleifer: “The Expanding Domain

of Economics”

Economic Man

motive: self-interest

Work and

no violence

Choice

Economic Man

motive: self-interest

with episodes of

antagonism

Work and

brawl in bars


Slide62 l.jpg

Motivation for Violence: Antagonism

Assaulters

Iso-preference

Lines

Assaulter’s

Income

High

Total or Social Income

Low

Victim’s Income


Slide63 l.jpg

expect $24,000/yr

Work and

no violence

choice

Apprehended: lose

1 month in court and

jail, $22,000

0.1

Work and

brawl in bars

0.9

Not apprehended

$24,000

Expected income: 0.1*$22,000 + 0.9*$24,000 = $23,800


Questions about statistical studies of deterrence l.jpg
Questions About Statistical Studies of Deterrence

  • Do we know enough about the factors that cause crime?

    • Can we find variables that will control for variation in crime generation?

  • We have better measures for the factors that control crime than for the factors that cause crime.

    • Unknown variation in crime generation may mask the effects of crime control.


Slide65 l.jpg

Schematic of the Criminal Justice System

Causes ?

Weak Link

Offense

Rate Per

Capita

Crime Generation

Expected

Cost of

Punishment

(detention,

deterrence)

Expenditures

Crime Control


Slide66 l.jpg

Crime Generation

1. variation of offense rate per capita with expected cost of punishment

2. Shift in the relationship with a change in causal factors

Offense

rate per

capita

crime generation function

OF = f($CR*SV, SE, MC)

Expected cost(severity) of punishment


Slide67 l.jpg

Crime Generation

1. variation of offense rate per capita with expected cost of punishment

2. Shift in the relationship with a change in causal factors

Offense

rate per

capita

crime generation function

OF = f($CR*SV, SE, MC)

High causal conditions

Low causal conditions

Expected cost(severity) of punishment


Slide68 l.jpg

Production Function for the Criminal Justice System (CJS)

1. Variation in expected costs of punishment with

criminal justice system expenditure per capita

Expected

costs of

punishment

production function

$CR*SV =g($EX)

Criminal Justice System expenditures per capita


Slide69 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

offense rate per capita

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide70 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

per capita

expenditures

on CJS

offense rate per capita

Production

Function

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide71 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

square

per capita

expenditures

on CJS

450

offense rate per capita

Production

Function

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide72 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

1

square

per capita

expenditures

on CJS

450

1

offense rate per capita

Production

Function

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide73 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

1

square

per capita

expenditures

on CJS

450

1

offense rate per capita

Production

Function

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide74 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

1

square

per capita

expenditures

on CJS

450

1

offense rate per capita

Production

Function

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide75 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

1

square

per capita

expenditures

on CJS

450

1

offense rate per capita

Production

Function

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide76 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

1

square

2

per capita

expenditures

on CJS

2

450

1

offense rate per capita

Production

Function

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide77 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

1

square

2

3

per capita

expenditures

on CJS

2

450

1

offense rate per capita

Production

Function

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide78 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

1

2

3

offense rate per capita


Slide79 l.jpg

Source: Report to the Nation on Crime and Justice


Slide80 l.jpg

Get

Expect

Source: Report to the Nation on Crime and Justice


Slide81 l.jpg

Four-Way Diagram: Crime Generation & Crime Control

per capita expenditures on CJS

1

square

2

3

per capita

expenditures

on CJS

2

450

1

offense rate per capita

Production

Function

Crime Generation

expected cost of punishment


Slide82 l.jpg

Causal conditions account for more variation than control

Source: Report to the Nation on Crime and Justice


Slide83 l.jpg

Schematic of the Criminal Justice System

Causes ?

Weak Link

Offense

Rate Per

Capita

Crime Generation

Expected

Cost of

Punishment

(detention,

deterrence)

Expenditures

Crime Control


Summary l.jpg
Summary

  • The death penalty stirs strong emotions.

  • To attack the death penalty, opponents have attacked the concept of deterrence.

  • Proponents of deterrence have lost the argument to proponents of detention.

    • Weakness: not understanding causes of crime.

  • Detention is the principal instrument of crime control policy today in the U.S. and it costs big bucks




Slide94 l.jpg

California Department of Corrections:

http//www.cdc.state.ca.us/



ad