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Techniques for Information Searching and Retrieval of Web-based Multimedia Digital Library. Presented by: Vincent Cheung Supervisors: Prof. Michael Lyu Prof. K.W. Ng Markers: Prof. K. H. Lee Prof. Y. S. Moon. 3 May 2000. Abstract.

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techniques for information searching and retrieval of web based multimedia digital library

Techniques for Information Searching and Retrieval of Web-based Multimedia Digital Library

Presented by: Vincent Cheung

Supervisors: Prof. Michael Lyu

Prof. K.W. Ng

Markers: Prof. K. H. Lee

Prof. Y. S. Moon

3 May 2000

abstract
Abstract
  • Digital Library is getting more and more popular, due to its strength in searching and retrieving information.
  • Web-based environment provides a better media for information sharing.
  • The trend that more multimedia information are needed to be stored instead of pure text.
  • Research on the techniques for multimedia information searching and retrieval in a web-based digital library.
presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • XML overview
  • Data structures for multimedia news archives
    • for video clips
    • using graph structures of XML
    • giving annotation
  • Architecture and agents of digital library
  • Research plan and conclusion
overview of xml
Overview of XML
  • XML - eXtensible Markup Language
  • Proposed by WWW Consortium, in 1998
  • To define a complete, platform-independent and system-independent environment for the authoring and delivery of information resources across the web.
  • Semistructured
how xml differs from html
How XML differs from HTML
  • Extensibility - new tags may be defined at will
  • Structure - XMLStructures can be nested to arbitrary depth
  • Validation - An XML document can contain an optional description of its grammar
xml documents

database

news

news

date

title

reporter

content

XML Documents
  • use elements and attributes to describe your document
  • <database>
  • <news>
  • <date year = “2000” month = “4” day = “15”/>
  • <title>Press warning appropriate, says Beijing</title>
  • <reporter>Kong Lai-fan</reporter>
      • <reporter>Greg Torode</reporter>
        • <content>
        • Beijing yesterday defended remarks made by senior
        • SAR-based official Wang Fengchao that local media
        • should avoid reporting separatist views.
        • </content>
  • </news>
  • <news>
        • . . .
  • </news>
  • </database>
document type definition
Document Type Definition
  • providing the definition of a document type, for member documents to follow
  • <!DOCTYPE database [
  • <!ELEMENT database (news*)>
  • <!ELEMENT news (date,title,reporter*,content)>
  • <!ELEMENT date year CDATA #REQUIRED
      • month CDATA #REQUIRED
        • day CDATA #REQUIRED>
  • <!ELEMENT title (#PCDATA)>
  • <!ELEMENT reporter (#PCDATA)>
  • <!ELEMENT content (#PCDATA)>
  • ]>
data structure for news videos
Data Structure for News Videos
  • Multimedia presentation
  • Graph structure property
    • keyword directory
    • thesaurus / classification directory
    • person / place directory
    • Chinese-English dictionary
  • Semistructure property
    • annotation
indexing a video
Indexing a Video
  • Segment the video hierarchically into scenes. (A video is composed of one or more related scenes.)
  • Describe the complete news video using bibliographic information (title, source, reporters, and abstract, etc…) plus format, duration, etc.
  • Describe each scene – id, start frame (time), end frame (time), keyframe, and scripts.
  • A OCR tools is implemented for indexing the videos in last semester.
indexing a video1
Indexing a Video

For a news clip:

id = 1234

title = N. T. swamped after torrential downpour

date = 1999-9-9

source = Hone Kong ATV

reporter = Chan Tai Man

abstract = Large areas of the northwest New Territories were under water yesterday as torrential rain swept across the SAR.

duration = 2:34:56

has_scene = 1234.1, 1234.2, 1234.3

format = MPEG

language = Cantonese

identifier = http://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/1.mpg”

indexing a video2
Indexing a Video

For a scene:

id = 1234.1

belong_to = 1234

next_scene = 1234.2

prev_scene = null

start_time = 0:0:00

end_time = 0:30:45

keyframe = 1238

transcrpt = . . .

slide12

Sample News Entry

In NewsDatabase.XML:

<database>

<news>

<date><year>2000</year><month>4</month><day>15</day>

</date>

<title>N.T.swamped after torrential downpour</title>

<content>Large areas of the northwest New

Territories were under water yesterday as

torrential rain swept across the SAR.

</content>

</news>

. . .

</database>

keyword directory
Keyword Directory
  • Each news has its own keyword elements
  • Build a keyword directory containing all keywords
  • Every keyword points to the news that having the same keyword
slide14

Keyword Directory

news

ID = 0010

title

date

keyword

reporter

N. T. swamped after torrential downpour

15 April, 2000

flood

Clifford Lo

News Database is a tree structure

keyword

keyword

keyword

keyword

flood

France

fuel

gun

ID

ID

ID

Keyword directory would be pointed by news entries, and also point to news entries.

0010

0017

0137

database

news

news

news

news

ID = 0010

ID = 0015

ID = 0017

ID = 0043

Keywords point to news database again to for a graph structure

slide15

Keyword Directory

In NewsDatabase.XML:

<database>

<news ID=”0010”>

<date><year>2000</year><month>4</month><day>15</day>

</date>

<title>N.T.swamped after torrential downpour</title>

<keyword>flood</keyword>

<keyword>storm</keyword>

<content>Large areas of the northwest New

Territories were under water yesterday as

torrential rain swept across the SAR.

</content>

</news>

. . .

</database>

slide16

Keyword Directory

In KeywordDirectory.XML:

<keyworddirectory>

. . .

<keyword word=”flood”>

<newsid>0010</newsid>

<newsid>0017</newsid>

<newsid>0137</newsid>

. . .

</keyword>

. . .

</keyworddirectory>

slide17

Thesaurus/Classification Directory

  • To search for terms with similar meaning to the keyword
    • <thesaurus>
    • <item term = “organisation”>
    • <spelling>organization</spelling>
    • <similar>association</similar>
    • </term>
    • <item term = “World Trade Organization”>
    • <spelling>World Trade Organisation
    • </spelling>
    • <abbreviation>WTO</abbreviation>
    • </item>
    • . . .
    • <thesaurus>
slide18

Thesaurus/Classification Directory

  • To search for subset terms of the given keyword
    • <thesaurus>
    • <item term = “organisation”>
    • <spelling>organization</spelling>
    • <similar>association</similar>
    • </term>
    • <item term = “disaster”>
    • <contains>flood</contains>
    • <contains>earthquake</contains>
    • <contains>fire</contains>
    • <contains>storm</contains>
    • </item>
    • <item term = “flood”>
    • <belongs>disaster</belongs>
    • </item>
    • . . .
    • <thesaurus>
slide20

Person / Place Directory

  • Person Directory ( Person ID, name, newsid, …)
  • <person_directory>
    • <person id = “wangfengchao”>
    • <name><first>Fengchao</first><last>Wang</last></name>
    • <nationality>Chinese</nationality>
    • <organization> The central Government’s Liaison Office </organization>
    • <position>deputy director</position>
    • <newsid>0123</newsid> <newsid>0245</newsid> ...
    • </person>
    • . . .
    • </person_directory>
slide21

Person / Place Directory

  • In news database:
  • <newsdatabase>
    • <news id = “0123”>
    • <date year=“2000” month=“4” day=“15”/>
    • <title>Press warning appropriate, says Beijing
    • </title>
    • <reporter>Kong Lai-fan</reporter>
    • <content>
    • Beijing yesterday defended remarks madeby senior
    • SAR-based official <person id=“wangfengchao”>
    • Wang Fengchao</person> that local media should
    • avoid reporting separatist views.
    • </content>
    • </news>
    • . . .
    • </newsdatabase>
slide22

news

ID = 0123

title

date

keyword

content

media

Presswarning appropriate, says Beijing

15 April, 2000

Person

Wang Fengchao

person

person

person

person

Wang Fengchao

John

Tom

Robert

ID

ID

ID

Person directory would be pointed by news entries, and also point to news entries.

0123

0246

0369

database

news

news

news

news

ID = 0123

ID = 0155

ID = 0246

ID = 0258

Person entries point to news database again to form a graph structure

Person / Place Directory

slide23

Person / Place Directory

Place Directory: category structure

<place_directory> <place_id=“china” class=“country”> <name>China</name> <newsid>5839</newsid> . . . <have_places> <place_id>=“hongkong” class=“SAR”> <name>Hong Kong</name> <have_places> <place id=“NT” class=“district”> <name>New Territories</name> </place> . . . </have_places> <newsid>0010</newsid> . . . </place> . . . </have_places> ` </place> </place_directory>

slide24

Person / Place Directory

  • In news database:
  • <newsdatabase>
    • <news id = “0010” place=“hongkong”>
    • <date year=“2000” month=“4” day=“15”/>
    • <title>N.T.swamped after torrential downpour </title>
    • <reporter>Clifford Lo</reporter>
    • <content>
    • Large areas of the northwest <place id=“NT”>
    • New Territories</place> were under water yesterday as torrential rain swept across the
    • <place id=“hongkong”> SAR </place>.
    • </content>
    • </news>
    • . . .
    • </newsdatabase>
chinese english dictionary
Chinese-English Dictionary
  • Translate the keywords for searching
  • We can have English to Chinese dictionary:

<e2cdict>

<english char = “f”>

<english char = “l”>

<english char = “o”>

<english char = “o”>

<english char = “d”>

<chinese>氾濫</chinese>

<chinese>水災</chinese>

<chinese>洪水</chinese>

. . .

</english>

</english>

. . .

</e2cdict>

chinese english dictionary1
Chinese-English Dictionary
  • We can have Chinese to English dictionary:

<c2edict>

<chinese term = “世”>

<chinese term = “貿”>

<english>WTO</english>

<english>World Trade Organization

</english>

</chinese>

. . .

</chinese>

. . .

</c2edict>

annotation
Annotation
  • XML is semistructured!
  • More flexibility in adding tags to contents.
  • Add our tags to give annotation to the strings to provide “meanings” to it.
  • Hence, more expressive queries can be supported.
annotation example
Annotation: example

<content>

Radioactive coolant water leaked at a nuclear reactor in western Japan yesterday, but the accident had no impact on the environment, the plant director said. "Today when the plant was operating with its usual output, a worker found a small leak of primary coolant water from a pipe of the No 2 reactor," said Katsuhiko Takahashi.

</content>

  • We understand… but the system doesn’t…
annotation example1
Annotation: example

<content>

<disaster nature=“radioactive” death=“0” injuried=“0”>Radioactive coolant water leaked at a nuclear reactor</disaster> in western <place id=“japan”> Japan </place>yesterday, but the accident had no impact on the environment, the plant director said. "<speech speaker="Katsuhiko Takahashi"> Today when the plant was operating with its usual output, a worker found a small leak of primary coolant water from a pipe of the No 2 reactor </speech>," said <person="Katsuhiko Takahashi">Katsuhiko Takahashi </person>.

</content>

usage of annotation
Usage of Annotation
  • So, we can have queries like:
    • All the speeches from Zhu Rongji in last month
    • All storms which kill more than 200 people
  • We can also make some links to give more details to people or places, etc.
architecture of digital library
Architecture of Digital Library
  • Designing stores and query processors for semistructured data.
  • Traditional database systems use a client/server architecture.
  • Over the distributed environment has given rise to two new architectures, they are data warehouses and mediators.
  • Video servers will also be integrated to our system to provide video streaming.
data warehouse
Data Warehouse

client

client

client

answer

query

warehouse

data

update

update

data

data

data

update

server

server

server

data

data

data

mediator

client

client

client

answer

query

mediator

query

query

answer

answer

answer

query

server

server

server

data

data

data

Mediator
agents using structured data
Agents Using Structured Data
  • Larger demands for more structured data than loosely structured HTML.
  • Using semistructured XML data can provide a very good environment for Web agents.
  • Our main aim of implementing our agent is to illustrate that our semistructured XML data can provide a better environment for an agent to work.
research plan conclusion
Research Plan & Conclusion
  • Design of the structure in XML semistructured format
    • to support multimedia data, multilingual data, and various kind of retrieval.
  • Architecture of the system that allows multiple sources of data.
  • Implementing an agent is to illustrate that our semistructured data can provide a better environment for an agent to work.
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