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Feedback and Improvement in Student Learning. Helen Timperley Professor of Education The University of Auckland New Zealand. Auckland. Wellington. Christchurch. Overview of Presentation. Feedback and its power Challenges for teachers

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feedback and improvement in student learning

Feedback and Improvement in Student Learning

Helen Timperley

Professor of Education

The University of Auckland

New Zealand

slide2

Auckland

  • Wellington
  • Christchurch
overview of presentation
Overview of Presentation
  • Feedback and its power
  • Challenges for teachers
  • An inquiry and knowledge building cycle for improvement
feedback
Feedback
  • Information provided by someone or something to a learner about aspects of performance or understanding
    • Feedback follows teaching
    • May be seen as new teaching when it fills gap between what is understood and what is aimed to be understood
the typical influence on achievement hattie 2009
The typical influence on achievement (Hattie, 2009)

The typical effect across

  • 800+ meta-analysis
  • 50,000 studies, and
  • 200+ million students
effect on achievement over time
Effect on Achievement over time?

Typical Effect Size

0

.20

1.0

.40

Decreased

Zero

Enhanced

where feedback fits hattie 2009
Where feedback fits (Hattie, 2009)

1 Acceleration (speed up a year) .88

2 Feedback .73

3 Student-teacher relationships .72

  • Teaching study skills .59
  • Cooperative learning .41
  • Homework .29
  • Mentoring .15
  • Ability grouping .12

9 Retention (hold back a year) -.16

the power of feedback
The Power of Feedback
  • Comes from being embedded in strategies involving:
    • Student self-report grades (Rank 1)
    • Formative evaluation (Rank 3)
    • Teacher clarity (Rank 8)
  • But not all feedback promotes student learning
what feedback would you give to this student parr timperley 2010
What feedback would you give to this student? (Parr & Timperley, 2010)
  • Learning objective: To learn how to structure a recount (an account of some event that has occurred)
  • Intended audience and purpose: Tell your friends in an interesting way about a trip you have been on
    • This student wrote about a trip to Sydney and Brisbane (Australia)
  • Write down two pieces of feedback you would give to this student
slide13

Hi I am at home planning my next trip to synedy and Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

day I am going to stay in syned for a week and I am going to stay in Brisburnd for a week with

my mum’s flat mate. When I went over to synedy las time I met rua hes a dog of chris’s. Chris is one of marys flat mate now last time when I went there I had to count his money. Then there is nan she has 3 children one is around 14 years old the seoncod is 2 years old and the youngst child is nine mothes old. Then I went to Brisbured. When I got to Synedy I am going to go to all this fantsey parks and and I am going to stay in a hotal.

feedback can be detrimental
Feedback can be detrimental
  • When it does not give information about how to improve, for example:
    • Tentative grades with no comments
    • Feedback associated with extrinsic rewards
    • Personal praise / criticism that distracts from the task

My day is boring and I don’t know what this assignment is about.

D-

You are so clever

slide15

Purpose – to reduce discrepancy between current understandings and a desired goal

Ways to reduce the discrepancy

Increase effort or abandon goal

Answers three questions

Where am I going? How am I going? Where to next?

Self- Regulation

Task

Task

Process

Self

slide16

Purpose

To reduce discrepancies between current understandings / performance and a desired goal

  • Key conditions:
  • Students must have a learning goal
    • Answers the question, “Where am I going?
  • Most effective when goals are specific and challenging but not too difficult
slide17

Ways to reduce the discrepancy

  • Increase effort using more effective strategies
  • Abandon, blur or lower the goal
  • Key conditions:
  • Teachers work with students to identify appropriate challenging and specific goals
  • Teachers assist students to reach them through effective learning strategies
  • “Where to next?”
slide18

Students

Students

Answers three questions

Where am I going? Goal

How am I going? Feedback

Where to next? Feed-forward

slide19

Each feedback question works at four levels

How well the tasks are understood / performed

Task level

The main processes needed to understand / perform tasks

Process level

Self Regulation

Self-monitoring, directing

and regulation of actions

Personal evaluations and affect (usually positive) about the learner

Self level

slide20

Hi I am at home planning my next trip to synedy and Brisbaned for Christmas and New years

day I am going to stay in syned for a week and I am going to stay in Brisburnd for a week with

my mum’s flat mate. When I went over to synedy las time I met rua hes a dog of chris’s. Chris is one of marys flat mate now last time when I went there I had to count his money. Then there is nan she has 3 children one is around 14 years old the seoncod is 2 years old and the youngs child is nine mothes old. Then I went to Brisbured. When I got to Synedy I am going to go to all this fantsey parks and and I am going to stay in a hotal.

how would your feedback have scored
How Would Your Feedback Have Scored?

For a high score (on our rubric):

  • Feedback provides an indication of:
    • Extent to which the writer met the learning objective (structuring recounts)
    • Extent to which writing had features associated with audience and purpose for writing (friends about an interesting trip)
    • What action the writer could take to improve

the research results
The Research Results
  • 49 teachers
  • Relationship between the quality of feedback score and gains in student achievement on a nationally normed measure of writing (asTTle) highly significant (r=.685, p<.01)
a second study timperley parr 2009
A second study (Timperley & Parr, 2009)

In a professional development project we examined extent to which teachers were explicit about and students understood

    • Learning objectives
    • Success criteria
    • Feedback
    • Feed forward
  • 15 teachers, observed lessons (with microphones), students interviewed
teachers learning sequence
Teachers’ Learning Sequence
  • Clarity of learning objectives and success criteria developed first for teachers (and understood by students)
  • Found personal praise difficult to stop;
  • Feedback about task & process rare;
  • Feed forward almost non-non-existent
learning how to give feedback in ways that promote student learning
Learning How to Give Feedback in Ways that Promote Student Learning
  • Requires that teachers’ professional learning is carefully scaffolded over time (in the same way as student learning)
    • Teachers identify learning goals with students
    • Identify own professional learning goals about feedback practice for themselves (in relation to students’ learning goals)
    • Seek feedback from students and leaders on their progress
    • Readjust their feedback practice
    • And so on ...
slide26

Timperley, H. (2008) Teacher Professional Learning and Development. International Academy of Education. International Bureau of Education. Paris: UNESCO

slide27

Teacher inquiry and knowledge-building cycle

to promote student outcomes for teachers

What knowledge and skills do our students need?

What knowledge and skills do we as teachers need?

What has been the impact of our changed actions?

Deepen professional knowledge and refine skills

Engage students in new learning experiences

slide28

Deepen student and professional learning focus

Re-assess students’ knowledge and skills

Professionals refine feedback practices

Observe how students respond (Prof feedback)

Professionals assisted to Identify feedback practices and new skills required

Assess students’ knowledge and skills

Relationship between professional and student learning

slide29

Students

Principals

Teachers

Feedback and Improvement

for rest of the day think about how teachers can inquire and build knowledge
For Rest of the Day: Think about How Teachers Can Inquire and Build Knowledge
  • High stakes testing and student learning
  • National Monitoring system
  • Criteria development with teachers
  • Macro or micro assessment policy
  • Assessment in Curriculum of Excellence
  • Developing an ‘assessment for learning’ culture
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