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Novels/Short Stories. NOVEL. A long fictional story, whose length is normally somewhere between one hundred and five hundred pages Uses the elements of storytelling: PLOT, CHARACTER, SETTING, THEME, and POINT OF VIEW. SHORT STORY.

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novel
NOVEL
  • A long fictional story, whose length is normally somewhere between one hundred and five hundred pages
  • Uses the elements of storytelling: PLOT, CHARACTER, SETTING, THEME, and POINT OF VIEW
short story
SHORT STORY
  • A short fictional prose narrative that usually makes up about 10 to 20 book pages
  • Follows the elements of plot-introduction/exposition, complications/rising action, climax, falling action, resolution
  • 1st written in the 19th century
  • More limited than novels-usually have only 1 or 2 major characters and one important setting
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PLOT
  • The series of related events that make up a story
  • INTRODUCTION/ EXPOSITION: tells us who the characters are and, usually, what their conflict is
  • COMPLICATIONS/RISING ACTION: arise as the characters take steps to resolve the conflict
  • CLIMAX: the most exciting moment in the story, when the outcome is decided one way or another
  • FALLING ACTION: final part of a story when the characters’ problems are solved
  • RESOLUTION: the story is closed
conflict
CONFLICT
  • A struggle or clash between opposing characters, or between opposing forces.
  • INTERNAL CONFLICT: a struggle occurs within the character’s own mind
    • Man vs. self
  • EXTERNAL CONFLICT: a character struggles against some outside force
    • Man vs. man
    • Man vs. nature
    • Man vs. society
point of view
POINT OF VIEW
  • The vantage point from which a story is told
  • OMNISCIENT: All knowing, the narrator knows everything about the characters and their problems; past, present, and future
  • 3RD PERSON LIMITED: the narrator focuses on the thoughts and feelings of just one character
  • 1ST PERSON: one of the characters is actually telling the story, using the personal pronoun “I”
irony
IRONY
  • A contrast between what appears to be true and what is really true or between expectation and reality
  • VERBAL IRONY-contrast between what is said or written and what is really meant
  • SITUATIONAL IRONY-occurs when what happens is very different from what we expected would happen
  • DRAMATIC IRONY-occurs when the audience or reader knows something that a character does not know
setting
SETTING
  • The time and place of a story or play
atmosphere mood
ATMOSPHERE/MOOD
  • The overall mood or emotion of a work of literature
  • Ex: scary, dreamy, happy, sad
  • Atmosphere is created through a writer’s use of words to create images, sounds, and descriptions that convey a particular feeling.
character
CHARACTER
  • A person, animal, or thing in a story, play, or other literary work.
  • Static character: one who does NOT change very much throughout the story or piece of work
  • Dynamic character: one who changes as a result of the story’s events.
protagonist
PROTAGONIST
  • The main character in a work of literature
  • ANTAGONIST: a character who is opposing the protagonist
characterization
CHARACTERIZATION
  • The process of revealing the personality of a character.
  • 6 ways to reveal characterization
    • By letting us HEAR THE CHARACTER SPEAK
    • By DESCRIBING how the character LOOKS AND DRESSES
    • By letting us LISTEN to the CHARACTER’S INNER THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS
    • By revealing what OTHER PEOPLE IN THE STORY THINK OR SAY about the character
    • By showing us WHAT THE CHARACTER DOES
    • By TELLING US DIRECTLY what the character’s personality is like (i.e. cruel, kind, sneaky, brave, and so on)
foreshadowing
FORESHADOWING
  • The use of clues or hints suggesting events that will occur later in the plot
  • Used to build suspense or anxiety in the reader
suspense
SUSPENSE
  • The uncertainty or anxiety we feel about what will happen next in a story
flashback
FLASHBACK
  • Interruption in the present action of a plot to flash backward and tell what happened at an earlier time
  • FLASH FORWARD: a break in the movement of a plot to an episode in the future
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TONE
  • The attitude a writer takes toward the audience, a subject, or a character
  • Conveyed through the writer’s choice of words and detail
  • EX: humorous, sad, serious
theme
THEME
  • A main idea of a work of literature
  • NOT the same as a subject
  • Theme must be expressed in a statement or sentence, not just one word
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