Ideology of the new order
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Ideology of the New Order. American Religious History – Post Civil War to Present Dr. Donald E. Harpster. Ideology of the New Order. Classical Economics Thomas Malthus – “Essay on Principle of Population” David Ricardo – “Iron Law of Wages” Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer

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Ideology of the New Order

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Ideology of the new order

Ideology of the New Order

American Religious History – Post Civil War to Present

Dr. Donald E. Harpster


Ideology of the new order1

Ideology of the New Order

  • Classical Economics

    • Thomas Malthus – “Essay on Principle of Population”

    • David Ricardo – “Iron Law of Wages”

  • Social Darwinism

    • Herbert Spencer

    • William Graham Sumner

  • Gospel of Wealth

    • General

    • Andrew Carnegie

  • Success Myth – Horatio Alger

  • Legal Defense of Laissez-faire


Classical economics

Classical Economics

  • Malthus – Principle of Population

    • Food Supply – (1-2-3-4-5-6)

    • Population – (1-2-4-8-16-32)

    • Population will grow much faster than food supply resulting in poverty and even starvation

Thomas Malthus


Classical economics1

Classical Economics

  • Ricardo – Iron Law of Wages

    • Wages be no higher than to maintain the work force at a subsistence level

    • Higher wages – More children – increase population – wages will go down to previous level

    • To pay more is unnatural/ lower wages are a kindness

David Ricardo


Social darwinism

Social Darwinism

  • Herbert Spencer

    • The human condition

      • All of life is a jungle-like struggle to keep alive

      • Survival of the fittest

      • Need struggle for the improvement of the race

    • Two laws

      • Law of absolute freedom

      • Law of conduct and consequences

    • Welfare will only take from the fit to help the unfit, blocking progress

    • Government – soldier, policeman, & judge


Social darwinism1

Social Darwinism

  • William Graham Sumner

    • Founder of modern sociology

    • American disciple of Spencer

    • Soften Spencer’s doctrines a bit

    • Do nothing during a depression to aid the poor

  • Both Spencer’s and Sumner’s ideas were thought of as part of the natural order, scientific, and therefore could not be changed.


Gospel of wealth

Gospel of Wealth

  • Popular Conception

    • “Godliness is in league with riches.”

      – Bishop Lawrence

    • “. . .no man suffers from poverty unless it be more than his fault – unless it be his sin.”

      – Henry Ward Beecher

Bishop William Lawrence

Henry Ward Beecher


Gospel of wealth1

Gospel of Wealth

  • Russell H. Conwell

  • Baptist minister in Philadelphia

  • “Acres of Diamonds” sermon

  • O.K. to be wealthy


Gospel of wealth2

Gospel of Wealth

  • Andrew Carnegie

    • Wealthy Industrialist in Steel

    • Concerned about the disparity between rich and poor


Gospel of wealth3

Gospel of Wealth

  • Options for the man of wealth to see it is used properly

    • Family – ruin character of sons

    • Charity – degrading for the poor

    • State – misuse it

    • Self – the best, dispose of it during lifetime or create a foundation to create self-help projects such as libraries, etc.


Success myth horatio alger

Success Myth – Horatio Alger

  • Cult of the self-made man

  • Success is due to practice of virtue and hard work

  • Rages to riches

  • Based on actual interviews


Legal defense of laissez faire

Legal Defense of Laissez-faire

  • 14th Amendment of the U. S. Constitution – no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law

    • Person – corporation

    • Life – can’t be deprived on its charter

    • Liberty – freedom to do anything you want to what is you and yours

    • Property – Tangible possessions, profession, good will, anticipated profits

    • Due Process of Law – Can’t single out corporations, e.g. Jacobs Case – Health regulations in a tenement where cigars made – just meddling and interfering


Ideology of the new order2

Ideology of the New Order

  • Supportive ideology for big business

  • Prominent last quarter of 19th century and first two decades of 20th century

  • Businessmen free to do what they wanted

  • Labor only as a commodity


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