Cavity is lined by a thin serous membrane called the Peritoneum Parietal layer – lines abdominal wall Visceral layer – covers organs Encloses; liver, gal bladder, ovaries, spleen, stomach, most of intestines..etc. ABDOMINAL CONTENT.
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PERITONITIS – inflammation of the peritoneal cavity caused by infections
4 QUADRIENT METHOD
1 - RUQ
2 – RLQ
3 – LUQ
4 – LLQ
PLANES, QUADRIENTS AND REGIONS…
4 QUADRIENT METHOD
1 – RUQ - Liver, gal bladder,
2 – RLQ - Liver
3 – LUQ – spleen, pancreas
4 – LLQ – spleen, ovaries
Hypersthenic - massive proportions (5%)
Sthenic – normal proportions (50%)
Hyposthenic – combination of hypersthenic and sthenic (35%)
Asthenic – long thin body cavity and structures (10%)
VARIOUS BODY TYPES…
- fundas at level of transpyloric plane
- pear shaped gland, stores bile
- receives bile from the liver
- adult holds 32 mL of bile
- during digestion of fats the GB contracts
5. Common Bile Duct (CBD)
Small Intestine – Absorption
8. Ascending Colon
- Rt lower quadrant
- connects to transverse colon at Hepatic flexure
Large bowl excretion and some absorption
9. Transverse Colon
10. Descending Colon
- runs along lt. plane of abd. Cavity
- ends in inguinal ligament
11. Recto-Sigmoid Colon
- hypogasrtic region
- behind the bladder
Review Small Bowl
Review large Bowl
Excretion …..some absorption
- Hypogastric region\
- Stores urine
- contains trigone area
- lower border corresponds with s.p.
- The urinary bladder usually holds 400–620 mL of urine
An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. They are usually purple. It is often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina; the other is connected on both sides to the fallopian tubes.
The testicle (from Latintestis, meaning "witness",pluraltestes) is the male generative gland in animals
Like the ovaries (to which they are homologous), testicles are components of both the reproductive system (being gonads) and the endocrine system (being endocrine glands
The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalianreproductive system.
The prostate differs considerably among species anatomically, chemically, and physiologically.
The main function of the prostate is to store and secrete a clear, slightly alkaline (pH 7.29) fluid that constitutes 10-30% of the volume of the seminal fluid that, along with spermatozoa, constitutes semen. The rest of the seminal fluid is produced by the two seminal vesicles.
Abdominal Aorta - T-12 to bifurcation @ L-4
- slightly to the left of the MSP
- transversely along supracristal plane
The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of descending aorta (of the thorax).
The celiac artery, also known as the celiac trunk and also spelled as coeliac, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta and branches from the aorta around the level of the T12 vertebra in humans.
Celiac Artery Branches
Celiac Artery Branches
2. Spleenic Artery
3. Hepatic Artery
4. Hepatic Artery - from the rt. Of the aorta – supplies liver
5. Superior Mesenteric Artery
starts in midline of transverse plane ½” below celiac artery @ L-1
6. Inferior Mesenteric artery
starts a ¼ in. above the supracristal plane.
7. Renal artery
from aorta ½ in. below transpyloric plane at L-2
8. Common Iliac Artery
starts @ L-4, bifurcation and runs into femoral point.
1/3 down the brim of the iliac bone divided into internal &external iliacs
9. IVC runs parallel to aorta more to the rt. of the MSP.
10. Portal Vein - Formed by the junction of the Spleenic and superior mesenteric veins. @ L-2 it runs to the rt. Enters the liver @ the Porta Hepatis. Runs along the hepatic art. And the CBD.
The porta hepatis or transverse fissure of the liver is a short but deep fissure, about 5 cm long, extending transversely across the under surface of the left portion of the right lobe of the liver, nearer its posterior surface than its anterior border.
10. Portal Vein
any of the muscles of the anterolateral walls of the abdominal cavity, composed of three flat muscular sheets, from without inward: external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis, supplemented in front on each side of the midline by rectus abdominis.