Chapter 10 nursing management of dementia
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Chapter 10: Nursing Management of Dementia. Learning Objectives. Differentiate among dementia, depression, and delirium. Identify the stages and clinical features of dementia. Describe procedures for diagnosing dementia. Recognize and address the common causes of delirium .

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Chapter 10: Nursing Management of Dementia

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Chapter 10 nursing management of dementia

Chapter 10: Nursing Management of Dementia


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Differentiate among dementia, depression, and delirium.

  • Identify the stages and clinical features of dementia.

  • Describe procedures for diagnosing dementia.

  • Recognize and address the common causes of delirium.

  • Discuss the theoretical foundations of nursing care for persons with dementia.

  • Contrast pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for dementia, delirium, and depression.


Learning objectives cont d

Learning Objectives (cont’d)

  • Apply basic principles to provide safe and effective care for persons with dementia.

  • List specific nursing interventions for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

  • Recognize the role of adult day services in the care of persons with dementia.

  • Identify the role that palliative care/hospice care plays for individuals with dementia and their families.


Dementia

Dementia

  • Progressive, degenerative brain dysfunction, including deterioration in memory, concentration, language skills, visuospatial skills, and reasoning, that interferes with a person’s daily functioning

  • Not considered a normal part of aging


Dementia cont d

Dementia (cont’d)

  • Most common types of dementia in older adults

    • Alzheimer’s disease (most common)

    • Vascular dementia (second most common)

    • Mixed Alzheimer’s/vascular dementia

    • Parkinson’s dementia

    • Lewy body dementia (LBD)

    • Frontotemporal lobe dementia


Dementia cont d1

Dementia (cont’d)

  • Risk factors for dementia

    • Age

    • Family history

    • Genetic factors

      • apolipoprotein E-e4 (APOE-e4)

    • History of head trauma

    • Vascular disease

    • Certain types of infections


Dementia cont d2

Dementia (cont’d)

  • Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Medical diagnosis (Box 10-5, P. 382; Box 10-8, p. 385)

    • Stages (mild, moderate, severe) (Box 10-9, p. 386)

    • Pharmacological intervention

      • cholinesterase inhibitors (CEIs): Aricept

      • N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists: Namenda

    • Medications that cause or worsen confustion

      • Anticholinergic (Box 10-6)

      • Medications with central nervous system effects


Delirium

Delirium

  • Acute confusion (dementia-chronic confusion)

  • Develops over hours or days

  • Hyperalert (agitated) or hypoactive states (lethargic)

  • Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is developed based on 4 features of delirium:

    • Acute onset or fluctuating course

    • Inattention

    • Disorganized thinking

    • Altered level of consciousness

  • Common Causes of Delirium (Box 10-12, p. 391)


Sundowner syndrome

Sundowner Syndrome

  • A form of delirium and refers to behavior problems that are sometimes seen in the late afternoon or early evening when the sun sets.

  • Nocturnal confusion

  • Confusion “as the sun goes down”

  • Increased with unfamiliar surrounding

  • Often disturbed sleep patterns

  • May result from excess sensory stimulation or deprivation


Depression

Depression

  • Risk increases in older adults with chronic illnesses or dementia (box 10-13)

  • Symptoms

    • can be incorrectly attributed to normal aging

    • may overlap with dementia

    • often include anxiety, agitation, and insomnia

  • Potentially life-threatening

  • Treatable

  • Often under recognizing, undertreated


Caring for the person with dementia

Caring for the Person with Dementia

  • Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms (Box 10-15)

  • Pharmacological Treatment (Box 10-16)

  • Nonpharmacological Treatment for Dementia (Box 10-17, 18)

  • Pain Management and Alzheimer’s Disease (Box 10-19, 20, 21)

  • Activity Interventions

  • Communication Interventions (Box 10-22)

  • Interventions for Particular Behaviors (p. 405-407)

  • Activities of Daily Living


Settings for care focus on adult day services

Settings for Care:Focus on Adult Day Services

  • Recreational therapy/activities

  • Meals

  • Social services

  • Transportation

  • Personal care: bathing, hair and nail care

  • Nursing services

  • Rehabilitation services (less commonly offered)

  • Medical services (less commonly offered)


Hospice palliative care

Hospice/Palliative Care

  • Palliative care

    • comprehensive approach to improving the quality of life for people who are living with potentially fatal diseases. (Box 10-32)

  • Advance directives


Legislative action

Legislative Action

  • National Alzheimer’s Project Act (2011) calls for the expansion and coordination of research and health service delivery across federal agencies for Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias.

  • The top priorities of the Act are to place significant focus on the dementia people to improve patient outcomes and to reduce disparities.


Summary

Summary

  • As population ages, cases of dementia will grow

  • Reliable assessment tools are available

  • Interventions for the common behaviors encountered among persons with dementia can help those persons and their caregivers


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