Resistant series circuits
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Resistant series circuits. These circuits involve only resistors such as light bulbs Equivalent resistance is determined. Req = R 1 + R 2 + … Use V = IR to determine I. Calculate voltage drop across each resistor. Practice time. Series circuits. Resistant parallel circuits.

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Resistant series circuits

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Resistant series circuits

Resistant series circuits

  • These circuits involve only resistors such as light bulbs

  • Equivalent resistance is determined.

  • Req = R1 + R2 + …

  • Use V = IR to determine I. Calculate voltage drop across each resistor.

  • Practice time.


Series circuits

Series circuits


Resistant parallel circuits

Resistant parallel circuits

  • These circuits involve only resistors such as light bulbs

  • Equivalent resistance is determined.

  • 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

  • Use V = IR to determine I. Calculate voltage drop across each resistor.

  • Practice time.


Parallel circuits

Parallel circuits


Series rc circuits

Series RC circuits

  • Equivalent resistance and capacitance is determined.

  • Req = R1 + R2 + …

  • 1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + …

  • Use V = IR to determine I. Calculate voltage drop across each resistor.

  • Use q = CV and divide by time to get current. We will not do this since current changes.

  • Practice time.


Parallel rc circuits

Parallel RC circuits

  • Equivalent resistance and capacitance is determined.

  • 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + …

  • Ceq = C1 + C2 + …

  • Use V = IR to determine I. Calculate voltage drop across each resistor.

  • Use q = CV and divide by time to get current. We will not do this since current changes.

  • Practice time.


Complex circuits

Complex circuits

  • Use same principles to isolate one equivalent resistance and reverse engineer solution to circuit.

  • Lots of practice time to follow.


Kirchoff s laws

Kirchoff’s laws

  • Voltage Law: The sum of all of the voltages around any closed loop must equal 0.

  • Current Law: The sum of all currents in any node must equal 0.

  • These may be used to help solve complex circuits.


Silicon chips

Silicon chips

Silicon has no free electrons and makes a very good insulator.

Its large atomic radii make it ideal for doping.


Silicon doping

Silicon doping

  • N type semiconductors have phosphorus or arsenic put in the silicon matrix. With 5 electrons, they provide one unbonded electron each.

  • P type semiconductors have boron or gallium put in the silicon matrix. With only 3 electrons, they result in a deficiency of electrons, or a hole.


Silicon doping1

Silicon doping

No current flows this way.

If we reverse the battery, what happens?


Silicon doping2

Silicon doping

  • Transistors use 3 layers of doped silicon, and can be PNP or NPN types.

  • Current will not flow unless you apply a small current to the center section, in which case it amplifies the current flow.

  • Transistors allowed the creation of the silicon chip and the microprocessor used in computers.


Pnp transistor

PNP transistor


Transistor images

Transistor images


How are transistors used

How are transistors used?

  • To switch electronic signals between on and off positions. This is a simple logic circuit.

  • To amplify the signal obtained. These are used in radios, TV’s, etc to produce volume.


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