World war one
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WORLD WAR ONE. World War I. REASONS FOR WAR. 1.Europe divided into 2 loose alliances: a. Triple Alliance – Italy, Austria-Hungary & Germany b. Triple Entente - France, Great Britain & Russia. REASONS FOR WAR. 2. Imperialism led to

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WORLD WAR ONE

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World war one

WORLD WAR ONE


World war one

World War I


Reasons for war

REASONS FOR WAR

1.Europe divided into 2 loose

alliances:

a. Triple Alliance – Italy,

Austria-Hungary &

Germany

b. Triple Entente- France,

Great Britain &

Russia


Reasons for war1

REASONS FOR WAR

2. Imperialism

led to

competition

for colonies


Reasons for war2

REASONS FOR WAR

3.MILITARISM or aggressive preparation for war grows.

  • Mili leaders develop war plans & stock supplies.

  • Refuse to change plans for anything & were basis for all decisions.


Reasons for war3

REASONS FOR WAR

. Militarism also includes:CONSCRIPTION- or military draft. Armies doubled in size by 1914.


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  • 4.NATIONALISM:desire for own nation grows.

  • many ethnic groups want freedom from the states in which they live.


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5. Balkans Crisis

*Aus-Hun annexes Bosnia &

Herzegovinia, hurting Serbia’s chance

to create Slavic empire (Most Bosnians are slavic)

*Serbs prep for war & are backed by

Rus

*Rus backs down when Germ threatens

to help Aus-Hun


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  • 1914: Serbia wants to create Slavic state.

  • Aus-Hun against it


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  • June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to A-H throne & wife Sophia visited Sarajevo, Bosnia.


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  • BLACK HAND (Serbian terrorist group who want Bosnia free),try to kill Franz.

  • Tried a bomb & failed.

  • GAVRILLO PRINCEP shoots both


Don t write

DON’T WRITE!!!!

  • Aus-Hun doesn’t know if Serb govt involved

  • Want to attack.

  • Afraid of Russia

  • Turn to Germ for

    help.


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Germ Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II gives “BLANK CHECK”, promising full support of Aus-Hun, even if Rus gets involved


War begins

WAR BEGINS!!!

  • Serbs turn down AUS-Hun demands

  • A-H declares war on Serbs July 28th, 1914


War begins1

WAR BEGINS!!!

  • Czar Nicholas II of Rus orders partial MOBILIZATION (assembling troops & supplies & making them ready for war).


War begins2

WAR BEGINS

  • Russia’s war plans say to fight Germ & Aus-Hun & Czar Nicholas must mobilize against both.

    Czar orders full mobilization on July 29th, 1914.


War begins3

WAR BEGINS!!!

  • Ger sees mobilization as act of war & declares war on Russia.


War begins4

WAR BEGINS

  • Germ General Alfred Von Schlieffen’s, war plan calls for 2 front war against FR & RUS (written 1894)


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  • Due to SCHLEIFFEN PLAN Ger had to attack France through Belgium to get RUS.

  • Ger declared war on France on Aug. 3rd, 1914


Don t write1

DON’T WRITE

  • Germ told Belgium (neutral) to let troops pass through


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  • Aug. 4th, 1914, Great Brit declares war on Germ for violating Belgium’s

    neutrality.

  • GB part of alliance

    w/ Fr & Rus

    (Triple Entente)


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1. Franz Ferdinand (next leader of Aus-Hun) assassinated by Serb terrorists the Black Hand 6/28/14

2. Aus-Hun gets Blank Check from Germany 7/5/14

3. Aus-Hun declares war on Serb 7/28/14

4. Russia Mobilizes army on 7/ 29 – 31/14 against both Aus-Hun & Germ


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5. Germans see mobilization as act of war. Declares war on Russia

6. German Schlieffen plan makes Germ invade Belgium & France to get Russia

7. Germany declares war on France 8/3/14

8. Great Britain declares war on Germany 8/4/14


War begins5

WAR BEGINS

  • Govt spreads PROPAGANDA- ideas used to influence public opinion for or against a cause-

  • helped to create hatred & support for causes.

  • Most believe war will end in 2 weeks or less


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  • Western Front-Mostly in Fr

  • Schlieffen Plan says go thru Belgium to circle Paris, trapping Fr.

  • Ger stopped at 1st Battle of Marne (Sept. 6-10, 1914).

  • Fr troops sent in taxis to front line in red uniforms.


Western front

WESTERN FRONT

  • Both sides dig trenches & create a stalemate for next 4 yrs

  • New technology

  • Little movement.

  • (Gas, tank, plane,

    mortars, machine

    gun, zeppelin,)


Battle of the somme july 1916

BATTLE OF THE SOMME (July 1916)


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BATTLE OF

VERDUN


No man s land

NO MAN’S LAND


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  • Eastern Front- Very mobile, w/ huge losses of life.

    1. Rus moves into E.

    Germ & is defeated at

    Battles of Masurian

    Lakes & Tannenburg by

    Sept 1914


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2.Aus-Hun defeated

by Rus

3. Italy switches sides in 1915 & attacks Aus-Hun.

4. Italy joins Triple Entente, but now

called the ALLIES

(GB, FR, RUS)


Eastern front

EASTERN FRONT


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5. Germ pushes Russians back into own land w/ heavy losses

6. Rus no longer threat.

7. Bulgaria joins w/ Germ & Aus-Hun. (now Central Powers)

8. Attack & destroy Serbs

in Sept 1915.


New allies

Ottoman empire (TURKEY) joins Germ

NEW ALLIES


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  • DON’T WRITE!!!!

  • Lawrence of Arabia (Brit officer in Middle East) gets Arab princes to rise against Ottoman (promise independence)

  • Destroy Otto by 1918


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  • US neutral

  • GB blockades Germ w/ navy

  • Germ uses unrestricted submarine warfare (will shoot down

    any ship)


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  • May 7, 1915 Germ sinks LUSITANIA, a BR passenger liner, killing 1000 (128 Americans)

  • Germ stops subs, afraid USA will join war.


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  • Jan. 1917, ADMIRALHOLTZENDORF talks KAISER into using unrestricted sub warfare & blockades again to break

    stalemate


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  • HOLTZENDORF promises Kaiser Wilhelm II that Brits will starve before US acts

  • “I give your majesty my word as an officer, not one American will land on the continent”


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  • April 1917, US enters the war!!!!

  • (bringing men, supplies & psychological boost).


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  • Became TOTALWAR-complete mobilization of resources & people.

  • Women take over jobs in factories


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  • Euros went to PLANNED ECONOMIES- systems run by govt agencies thatexpanded powers to meet needs such as: drafts, regulate import/exports, ration food,

    control prices, wages &

    rent control


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  • 1918 better for Allies w/ arrival of US troops


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  • Germ GENERAL ERICH VON LUDENDORFF gambles & planned 1 big offensive on Western Front


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  • Get w/in 50 miles of Paris, but stopped at 2nd Battle of Marne


2 nd battle of the marne

2nd Battle of the Marne


Germany loses

GERMANY LOSES

  • Germ forced back by US troops

  • Sept 29, 1918, Gen. Ludendorff says war is lost.

  • Allies won’t make peace w/ Germ imperial govt


German sailors mutiny

GERMAN SAILORS MUTINY

  • Nov. 3, 1918 sailors in Kiel mutiny& it spreads across Germ as govt offices taken over


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  • Kaiser WilliamII gives up & flees.

  • AUS-Hun fell apart & new

    nations emerge


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  • FRIEDRICH EBERT announces creation of a democratic

    republic. Signed ARMISTICE (treaty) on Nov. 11, 1918,


End of the war

END OF THE WAR

  • Jan 1919, 27 ALLIED nations meet to make final settlement


W o o d r o w w i l s o n

WOODROWWILSON

  • WOODROW WILSON-US pres- presented 14 Points to

    Congress to take to meeting. He said they should:


14 points

14 Points

a. reach peace openly & reduce weapons

b. Create a “general association of nations” to guarantee independence. (League of Nations)

c.Must create democracies & self-determination (right of each people to have own nation).


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  • Problems at PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE (1919) due to secret

    treaties & own selfish interests


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  • DAVID LLOYD GEORGE – Brit Prime minister wants

    Germ to be punished & pay for crimes


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  • GEORGES CLEMENCEAU – premier of France says Fr suffered most, needs security.


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  • Demands Germ:

    1.be stripped of weapons

    2. pay REPARATIONS- damages to pay for war

    3. create a buffer area btw FR & Germ called Rhineland.


Paris peace conference

PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE

  • .Italy played small role.

  • Russia can’t come

  • Germ not invited

  • Run by BIG 3- US, FR & GB.

  • Big battle btw them


Paris peace conference1

PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE

  • Jan. 25, 1919. League of Nations created (US DOES NOT JOIN due to Versailles).

  • Compromises

    made.


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  • TREATY OF VERSAILLES- signed w/ Germ. Most important. 5 others signed

  • Germ unhappy w/ Article 231, which is War Guilt Clause, stating

    Germ admits

    guilt for war.


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MUST DO THE FOLLOWING:

1. pay reparations

2. reduce army to 100,000

3. get rid of air force &

reduce navy

4. return Alsace & Loraine,

5. Sections of E. Germ given

to create Poland.

  • Germ along Rhineland

    now a DMZ, (no weapons)


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  • Map of Europe redrawn due to Treaty.

  • Aus-Hun, Serbia & Ottoman Empire gone

  • Rus (USSR) & Germ smaller


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c. Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Lithuania, Czechoslovaka Austria, Hungary & Yugoslavia created


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d. Br take Iran & Palestine. Called a MANDATE when nation officially governed

by another nation, but not owned by them


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  • The financial cost of the war amounted to almost $38 billion for Germany

  • Britain spent $35 billion,

  • France $24 billion,

  • Russia $22 billion,

  • USA $22 billion

  • Austria-Hungary $20 billion. 

  • In total the war cost the Allies $125 billion

  • the Central Powers $60 billion


World war i casualties american

WORLD WAR I CASUALTIES: AMERICAN

  • Battle deaths: 53,402

  • Other deaths in service: 63,114

  • Non-mortal wounded: 204,002

  • Living vets as

    of 2000: 2,416


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Country

Dead

Wounded

Missing

Total

Australia

58,150

152,170

-

210,320

Austria-Hungary

922,000

3,600,000

855,283

5,377,283

Belgium

44,000

450,000

-

494,000

Britain

658,700

2,032,150

359,150

3,050,000

Bulgaria

87,500

152,390

27,029

266,919

Canada

56,500

149,700

-

206,200

France

1,359,000

4,200,000

361,650

5,920,650


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Germany

1,600,000

4,065,000

103,000

5,768,000

Greece

5,000

21,000

1,000

27,000

India

43,200

65,175

5,875

114,250

Italy

689,000

959,100

-

1,424,660

Japan

300

907

3

1,210

Montenegro

3,000

10,000

7,000

20,000

New Zealand

16,130

40,750

-

56,880


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Romania

335,706

120,000

80,000

535,706

Russia

1,700,000

5,000,000

-

6,700,000

Serbia

45,000

133,148

152,958

331,106

Turkey

250,000

400,000

-

650,000

USA

58,480

189,955

14,290

262,725

Totals

7,996,888

21,755,196

1,979,556

31,508,200


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