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WORLD WAR ONE. World War I. REASONS FOR WAR. 1.Europe divided into 2 loose alliances: a. Triple Alliance – Italy, Austria-Hungary & Germany b. Triple Entente - France, Great Britain & Russia. REASONS FOR WAR. 2. Imperialism led to

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reasons for war
REASONS FOR WAR

1.Europe divided into 2 loose

alliances:

a. Triple Alliance – Italy,

Austria-Hungary &

Germany

b. Triple Entente- France,

Great Britain &

Russia

reasons for war1
REASONS FOR WAR

2. Imperialism

led to

competition

for colonies

reasons for war2
REASONS FOR WAR

3.MILITARISM or aggressive preparation for war grows.

  • Mili leaders develop war plans & stock supplies.
  • Refuse to change plans for anything & were basis for all decisions.
reasons for war3
REASONS FOR WAR

. Militarism also includes:CONSCRIPTION- or military draft. Armies doubled in size by 1914.

slide7
4.NATIONALISM:desire for own nation grows.
  • many ethnic groups want freedom from the states in which they live.
slide8
5. Balkans Crisis

*Aus-Hun annexes Bosnia &

Herzegovinia, hurting Serbia’s chance

to create Slavic empire (Most Bosnians are slavic)

*Serbs prep for war & are backed by

Rus

*Rus backs down when Germ threatens

to help Aus-Hun

slide10
June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to A-H throne & wife Sophia visited Sarajevo, Bosnia.
slide11
BLACK HAND (Serbian terrorist group who want Bosnia free),try to kill Franz.
  • Tried a bomb & failed.
  • GAVRILLO PRINCEP shoots both
don t write
DON’T WRITE!!!!
  • Aus-Hun doesn’t know if Serb govt involved
  • Want to attack.
  • Afraid of Russia
  • Turn to Germ for

help.

slide13
Germ Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II gives “BLANK CHECK”, promising full support of Aus-Hun, even if Rus gets involved
war begins
WAR BEGINS!!!
  • Serbs turn down AUS-Hun demands
  • A-H declares war on Serbs July 28th, 1914
war begins1
WAR BEGINS!!!
  • Czar Nicholas II of Rus orders partial MOBILIZATION (assembling troops & supplies & making them ready for war).
war begins2
WAR BEGINS
  • Russia’s war plans say to fight Germ & Aus-Hun & Czar Nicholas must mobilize against both.

Czar orders full mobilization on July 29th, 1914.

war begins3
WAR BEGINS!!!
  • Ger sees mobilization as act of war & declares war on Russia.
war begins4
WAR BEGINS
  • Germ General Alfred Von Schlieffen’s, war plan calls for 2 front war against FR & RUS (written 1894)
slide19
Due to SCHLEIFFEN PLAN Ger had to attack France through Belgium to get RUS.
  • Ger declared war on France on Aug. 3rd, 1914
don t write1
DON’T WRITE
  • Germ told Belgium (neutral) to let troops pass through
slide22
Aug. 4th, 1914, Great Brit declares war on Germ for violating Belgium’s

neutrality.

  • GB part of alliance

w/ Fr & Rus

(Triple Entente)

slide23
1. Franz Ferdinand (next leader of Aus-Hun) assassinated by Serb terrorists the Black Hand 6/28/14

2. Aus-Hun gets Blank Check from Germany 7/5/14

3. Aus-Hun declares war on Serb 7/28/14

4. Russia Mobilizes army on 7/ 29 – 31/14 against both Aus-Hun & Germ

slide24
5. Germans see mobilization as act of war. Declares war on Russia

6. German Schlieffen plan makes Germ invade Belgium & France to get Russia

7. Germany declares war on France 8/3/14

8. Great Britain declares war on Germany 8/4/14

war begins5
WAR BEGINS
  • Govt spreads PROPAGANDA- ideas used to influence public opinion for or against a cause-
  • helped to create hatred & support for causes.
  • Most believe war will end in 2 weeks or less
slide27
Western Front-Mostly in Fr
  • Schlieffen Plan says go thru Belgium to circle Paris, trapping Fr.
  • Ger stopped at 1st Battle of Marne (Sept. 6-10, 1914).
  • Fr troops sent in taxis to front line in red uniforms.
western front
WESTERN FRONT
  • Both sides dig trenches & create a stalemate for next 4 yrs
  • New technology
  • Little movement.
  • (Gas, tank, plane,

mortars, machine

gun, zeppelin,)

slide31

BATTLE OF

VERDUN

slide35
Eastern Front- Very mobile, w/ huge losses of life.

1. Rus moves into E.

Germ & is defeated at

Battles of Masurian

Lakes & Tannenburg by

Sept 1914

slide36
2.Aus-Hun defeated

by Rus

3. Italy switches sides in 1915 & attacks Aus-Hun.

4. Italy joins Triple Entente, but now

called the ALLIES

(GB, FR, RUS)

slide38
5. Germ pushes Russians back into own land w/ heavy losses

6. Rus no longer threat.

7. Bulgaria joins w/ Germ & Aus-Hun. (now Central Powers)

8. Attack & destroy Serbs

in Sept 1915.

slide40
DON’T WRITE!!!!
  • Lawrence of Arabia (Brit officer in Middle East) gets Arab princes to rise against Ottoman (promise independence)
  • Destroy Otto by 1918
slide41
US neutral
  • GB blockades Germ w/ navy
  • Germ uses unrestricted submarine warfare (will shoot down

any ship)

slide42
May 7, 1915 Germ sinks LUSITANIA, a BR passenger liner, killing 1000 (128 Americans)
  • Germ stops subs, afraid USA will join war.
slide45
Jan. 1917, ADMIRALHOLTZENDORF talks KAISER into using unrestricted sub warfare & blockades again to break

stalemate

slide46
HOLTZENDORF promises Kaiser Wilhelm II that Brits will starve before US acts
  • “I give your majesty my word as an officer, not one American will land on the continent”
slide47
April 1917, US enters the war!!!!
  • (bringing men, supplies & psychological boost).
slide49
Euros went to PLANNED ECONOMIES- systems run by govt agencies thatexpanded powers to meet needs such as: drafts, regulate import/exports, ration food,

control prices, wages &

rent control

germany loses
GERMANY LOSES
  • Germ forced back by US troops
  • Sept 29, 1918, Gen. Ludendorff says war is lost.
  • Allies won’t make peace w/ Germ imperial govt
german sailors mutiny
GERMAN SAILORS MUTINY
  • Nov. 3, 1918 sailors in Kiel mutiny& it spreads across Germ as govt offices taken over
slide56
Kaiser WilliamII gives up & flees.
  • AUS-Hun fell apart & new

nations emerge

slide57
FRIEDRICH EBERT announces creation of a democratic

republic. Signed ARMISTICE (treaty) on Nov. 11, 1918,

end of the war
END OF THE WAR
  • Jan 1919, 27 ALLIED nations meet to make final settlement
w o o d r o w w i l s o n
WOODROWWILSON
  • WOODROW WILSON-US pres- presented 14 Points to

Congress to take to meeting. He said they should:

14 points
14 Points

a. reach peace openly & reduce weapons

b. Create a “general association of nations” to guarantee independence. (League of Nations)

c.Must create democracies & self-determination (right of each people to have own nation).

slide62
DAVID LLOYD GEORGE – Brit Prime minister wants

Germ to be punished & pay for crimes

slide64
Demands Germ:

1.be stripped of weapons

2. pay REPARATIONS- damages to pay for war

3. create a buffer area btw FR & Germ called Rhineland.

paris peace conference
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
  • .Italy played small role.
  • Russia can’t come
  • Germ not invited
  • Run by BIG 3- US, FR & GB.
  • Big battle btw them
paris peace conference1
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
  • Jan. 25, 1919. League of Nations created (US DOES NOT JOIN due to Versailles).
  • Compromises

made.

slide67
TREATY OF VERSAILLES- signed w/ Germ. Most important. 5 others signed
  • Germ unhappy w/ Article 231, which is War Guilt Clause, stating

Germ admits

guilt for war.

slide68
MUST DO THE FOLLOWING:

1. pay reparations

2. reduce army to 100,000

3. get rid of air force &

reduce navy

4. return Alsace & Loraine,

5. Sections of E. Germ given

to create Poland.

  • Germ along Rhineland

now a DMZ, (no weapons)

slide69
Map of Europe redrawn due to Treaty.
  • Aus-Hun, Serbia & Ottoman Empire gone
  • Rus (USSR) & Germ smaller
slide70
c. Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Lithuania, Czechoslovaka Austria, Hungary & Yugoslavia created
slide71
d. Br take Iran & Palestine. Called a MANDATE when nation officially governed

by another nation, but not owned by them

slide73
The financial cost of the war amounted to almost $38 billion for Germany
  • Britain spent $35 billion,
  • France $24 billion,
  • Russia $22 billion,
  • USA $22 billion
  • Austria-Hungary $20 billion. 
  • In total the war cost the Allies $125 billion
  • the Central Powers $60 billion
world war i casualties american
WORLD WAR I CASUALTIES: AMERICAN
  • Battle deaths: 53,402
  • Other deaths in service: 63,114
  • Non-mortal wounded: 204,002
  • Living vets as

of 2000: 2,416

slide75

Country

Dead

Wounded

Missing

Total

Australia

58,150

152,170

-

210,320

Austria-Hungary

922,000

3,600,000

855,283

5,377,283

Belgium

44,000

450,000

-

494,000

Britain

658,700

2,032,150

359,150

3,050,000

Bulgaria

87,500

152,390

27,029

266,919

Canada

56,500

149,700

-

206,200

France

1,359,000

4,200,000

361,650

5,920,650

slide76

Germany

1,600,000

4,065,000

103,000

5,768,000

Greece

5,000

21,000

1,000

27,000

India

43,200

65,175

5,875

114,250

Italy

689,000

959,100

-

1,424,660

Japan

300

907

3

1,210

Montenegro

3,000

10,000

7,000

20,000

New Zealand

16,130

40,750

-

56,880

slide77

Romania

335,706

120,000

80,000

535,706

Russia

1,700,000

5,000,000

-

6,700,000

Serbia

45,000

133,148

152,958

331,106

Turkey

250,000

400,000

-

650,000

USA

58,480

189,955

14,290

262,725

Totals

7,996,888

21,755,196

1,979,556

31,508,200

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