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Spatial DBMS. Spatial Database Management Systems. Introduction. March 2002. SDBMS is a database system with additional capabilities for handling spatial data. Spatial Objects

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spatial dbms

Spatial DBMS

Spatial Database Management Systems

introduction
Introduction

March 2002

SDBMS is a database system with additional capabilities for handling spatial data.

  • Spatial Objects
    • Consist of points, lines, surfaces, volumes and higher dimension objects that are used in applications of computer-aided design, cartography, geographic information systems.
  • Spatial Data
    • The values of the objects’ spatial attributes: length, configuration, perimeter, area, volume, etc.
  • Spatial Databases
    • A collection of spatial and non-spatial data that is interrelated, of data descriptions and links between data

April 2004

functionality
Functionality
  • Spatial data is comprised of objects in multi-dimensional space
  • Spatial Indexing
    • Retrieving objects in a particular area without scanning the entire space
  • Spatial Joins
    • Efficient algorithms for joining multiple spatial objects
raster and vector data
Raster and Vector Data
  • Two very different types of data
  • Vector is spit into three primary types:
    • polygon, line, point
  • Raster data represents the fourth type of feature: surfaces
    • Eg: thematic data, spectral data, and pictures (imagery)
spatial relationships
Spatial Relationships
  • Topological relationships
    • Eg: adjacent, in, touch, equal, cover, overlap, disjoint, etc.
  • Direction relationships
    • Eg: above, below, north of, southeast of, etc.
  • Metric relationships
    • Eg: distance, size, perimeter, etc.
querying
Querying
  • Spatial Selection
    • Eg: “All rivers in Arkansas” or “All rivers within 50 miles of Little Rock”
  • Spatial Join
    • Eg: “For each river in Arkansas, find all cities within 20 miles”
indexing
Indexing
  • Organized so that only parts of the objects need to be examined to answer a query
  • Data stored as either points or polygons
  • Query types for points:
    • All points within a rectangle, point closest to query point, find points matching x in increasing distance from query point
  • Query types for polygons:
    • Intersection
    • Containment
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