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„System of waste management in Germany – turning waste into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“. Maic Verbücheln, Difu. National Workshop: Developing Environmental Infrastructure Projects in the WASTE Sector in Macedonia

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„System of waste management in Germany – turning waste into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

Maic Verbücheln, Difu

National Workshop: Developing Environmental Infrastructure Projects in the WASTE Sector in Macedonia

28-29th October 2008, Ohrid, Macedonia


German Institute of Urban Affairs (Difu) into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

  • Foundation and domicile

  • is a non-profit institute and founded in 1973

  • located in Berlin and Cologne (Germany)

  • Mandate and members

  • is the research institute for cities

  • is supported by 100 cities (approx. 24 Mio. inhab.)

  • Deal with different topics

  • urban development, economy, social policy and culture, environment(municipal waste management)


Overview into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

1. Review to the past

2. Today's waste management

3. Results and benefits

4. Outlook for the future


1. Review to the past into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

  • up to 1970: 50 000 uncontrolled dump sites

  • 1972: first waste management law

  • reduction to 500 controlled landfills

  • Resume

  • Nomaterial flow management - dispose of waste via littering or dumping

  • Objective of the past waste management: to solve hygiene- and organisation problems

„archaic phase“


2. Today's waste management into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

  • Important legislation (selection)

  • 1991: packaging ordinance (e.g. product responsibility – implementation of a dual system)

  • 1996: Closed Substance Cycle and Waste Management Act(e.g. waste hierarchy, product responsibility) - is the base of today's waste management in Germany

  • 1998: battery ordinance (e.g. product responsibility – implementation of a take back system)

  • 2005: electric- and electronic ordinance (e.g. shared product responsibility – implementation of a take back system)


2. Today's waste management into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

System of closed material circle in Germany

*Source: Ecologic


2. Today's waste management into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

Separate collection and recycling (household w.)


2. Today's waste management into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

  • Resume

  • partlymaterial flow management – reuse, recycling combustion and landfilling

  • - produce of secondary raw materials,

  • - produce ofpower, heat,

  • - produce of gas ….

  • there are stillsecondary raw material in the residue waste, which are not all recovered today!!!!

  • Objective of today's waste management: to solvemainly environmental problems

„environmentally and partly resource

oriented phase“


3. Results and benefits into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

Decoupling the yearly waste amount from the economic performance in Germany

2000

2003

2004

2005

2006

- reduction from 100% (2000) to 87,5% (2006)

Source: UBA, Stat. Bundesamt


3. Results and benefits into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

Collected residues and materials from households

- increase of material collection for recycling

Source: BMU


3. Results and benefits into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

General recovery rates (resource protection)


3. Results and benefits into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

  • Take back of secondary raw materials (selection) in the economic cycle lead to

  • e.g.: cut down of imports and an added value (Mio. Euro)

  • Source: Institute of German economy, Cologne


4. Outlook for the future into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

  • Global tendencies

  • population growth (8/2025- 9,1/2050)*

  • economic growth (e.g. India, China)

  • tends to result in:

  • rise of resource consumption (e.g. crude oil, copper, steel, silicon, plastic, paper…)

  • environmental problems (e.g. soil, water)

  • climate change (e.g. CO2-production)

  • *Source: UNO


4. Outlook for the future into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

  • Global tendencies

  • raw material world market prices which are

  • imported in the Euro-zone, rose of about

  • 81% from 2000 to 2005

  • industry raw materials prices rose about appr.

  • 50% (NF-Metals 82%, FE-Metals 130%)

    • a continued rise of prices can be expected on a long term perspective

  • costs of raw materials relate to 40% of the

  • production costs (employees for 25%)!!!!

  • Source: Institute of German economy, Cologne


  • 4. Outlook for the future into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

    • Thematic Strategies of the COM (EU)

    • „Life Cycle Thinking“ incl. waste management

      • view on life cycle of material streams

    • Orientation of waste as a resource

    • using the resource potential (productivity)

    • Development of a „Recycling Society“

    • promotion of a recycling market

    • economic instruments for the steering


    4. Outlook for the future into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

    • Political objectives in Germany (selection)

    • protection of resources

    • achieve a sustainable economy by the use of a closed material cycle and increase of efficiency

    • sustainable waste management with low emissions and effective resource utilization

    • entire and ecologically sound recycling of all municipal waste (goal 2020) – close of all household landfills to the year 2020


    4. Outlook for the future into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

    • Resume

    • Political and economic pressure will lead to:

    • widespread material flow management and return of secondary raw materials in the economic cycle

    • material flow management will change the classic waste management to a resource- or material flow economy – new techniques like sorting plants?

    • Objective of the future waste management: to solveenvironment- and resource problem

    • „resource oriented phase“


    4. Outlook for the future into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

    • Resume for municipalities

    • reduce the waste amount is important, because the handling and after care is cost intensive but

    • can force material flow management systems, by select and collect of waste fractions

    • can play an important role in the economic cycle - need of intelligent systems

    • markets for secondary raw materials are needed, high quality of products is important


    Thank you for attention into benefit (separate collection, recycling, reuse) – outlook for the future“

    Maic Verbücheln, Difu

    National Workshop: Developing Environmental Infrastructure Projects in the WASTE Sector in Macedonia

    28-29th October 2008, Ohrid, Macedonia