Growing Tomatoes. Advanced Master Gardner Training-2005. Chuck Marr Horticulture Kansas State University. Commercial Varieties Translate well Not controversial. ‘University’ Varieties Represent the state Not time consuming. Tomato Names and Numbers. Amelia Crista Quincy
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Advanced Master Gardner Training-2005
Kansas State University
Represent the state
Not time consuming
BHN 555, 543, 444 etc
Mountain Fresh, “ Crest, “ Spring
Florida 47, Florida 91, Florida 7514
Trichomes or Glandular hairs
Tomato fruit develop from flowers that are open for about 3 days. Flowers almost always self-pollenized. It takes 30 days for a fruit to develop to a full sized, green- ready to ripen (another 5-7 days to ripen)
Blossom End Rot (BER)
Brown leathery patch on bottom of tomato fruit.
Deficiency of calcium in fruit from calcium moving in water stream bypassing the fruit. Underdeveloped root system, watering fluctuations, or lush, succulent growth are all potential causes.
Avoid sidedressing with ammonium forms of N fertilizer. (common one is urea).
Don’t start too early in the season.
Soil temperature should be a consistent 55 F. Check soil temperature at late morning at a 2 inch depth.
Below critical soil temperature, plant roots don’t develop and plants don’t absorb nutrients properly.
Plants may survive but don’t ‘thrive’
Date that soil temperatures reach 55 F is usually when average freeze date is from 10-20% chance of a freeze or 10-14 days after average freeze date.
June July August Sept Oct
Standard vineDeterminate/Compact vine
Leaf area to support fruit development (and new vine growth)
Fruit ripens uniformly- top to bottom and inside-outside. Uniformly ripe. No ‘green shoulder’ or waste when using.
Fusarium wilt (2 Races or Strains F1 and F2)
Fusarium wilt is a soil borne fungus that will persist from 8-12 years
There is NO KNOWN CONTROL
Race 3-some varieties
Leaf blight diseases (Early Blight and Septoria Leaf Spot)
Older leaves on plant. Usually after fruit load has developed
Some varieties are resistant.
Treatment is very difficult
Nematode Damage to Tomato Roots
South of I-70 where problem is most significant (over-wintering)
‘Upgraded’ varieties with nematode resistance
Celebrity= Celebrity Supreme
Mt Fresh= Mt Fresh Plus
Blossom drop from excessive summer heat.
Daytime 95 F, Night 75 F
Excessive N; Hot, dry winds make problem worse
A genetic trait- usually referred to as the Hot Set or Heat Set gene allows tomatoes to set under heat conditions.
Many new varieties now are being developed with the Hot Set gene incorporated.
Average days (last 30 years) when Day >95, Night >75
Range from < 15 days to > 45 days
Sun Leaper and Sunmaster have done well. Several newer varieties coming along with this characteristic.
Some internal characteristics of tomato fruit where flavor differences are noted
Tomatoes that have more flesh and less seed cavity, locular jelly are less flavorful.
Internal flesh contains fewer flavor compounds
Have to bite into cells to release contents.
Many newer tomato varieties are firmer by consumer preference.
Significant loss of flavor
Some loss of flavor, sugar
Less loss of flavor
Very little flavor differences
Tomatoes stored between 40 and 50 degrees can have significant losses of flavor. Aroma compounds decline- sourness increases
Tomatoes stored at 65 F or above had little significant changes in flavor due to any cold storage treatment.
Length and temperature combine to injure fruit
“Preconditioning” is a current area of study
Florida 91 (Hot Set)
Sunmaster (Hot Set)
Sun Leaper (Hot Set)
K-State-Research & Extension
“Knowledge for Life”