Chapter 12
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Chapter 12. Interactions of Living Things. Section 1 : Everything Is Connected. Studying the Web of Life Ecology – the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment The environment consists of two parts:

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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Interactions of Living Things


Section 1 everything is connected

Section 1 : Everything Is Connected

  • Studying the Web of Life

    • Ecology – the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

    • The environment consists of two parts:

      • 1) Biotic – is the part of the environment where all organisms live and interact with one another

      • 2) Abiotic – is the part of the environment that includes physical factors like; water, soil, light, and temperature, which affects how an organism lives


Organization in the environment

Organization in the Environment

  • The environment can be arranged into the following 5 levels (smallest to biggest):

    • 1) Organism

    • 2) Population

      • Population – a group of organisms of the same species living in the same area

    • 3) Community

      • Community – all the populations of different species that live in a certain area

    • 4) Ecosystem

      • Ecosystem –is the community of organisms and their non living environment (abiotic)

    • 5) Biosphere

      • Biosphere – the part of the Earth where life exists.

        • It extends from the deepest parts of the ocean to the upper atmosphere


Chapter 12 quiz 1

Chapter 12 - Quiz 1

  • 1) _____________ is the the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

  • 2) ____________ is the part of the environment where all of the organisms live and interact

  • 3) ___________ is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area

  • 4) ___________ is the part of the Earth where life exists, from the deepest parts of the ocean to the upper atmosphere

  • B) ___________ is a organism that only eats plants


Section 2 living things need energy

Section 2 – Living Things Need Energy

The Energy Connection

Organisms can be divided into 3 groups based on how they obtain energy;

  • PRODUCERS – are organisms that use sunlight directly to make food

    this process is called Photosynthesis

    Producers include plants, algae, and some bacteria


Chapter 12

2) CONSUMERS – are organisms that eat producers and other organisms to obtain their energy.

There are several kinds:

a) Herbivores – consumers that only eat plants

b) Carnivores – consumers that only eat animals

c) Omnivores – consumers that eat both plants and animals

d) Scavengers – consumers who eat dead animals

3) Decomposers – are organisms that get their energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms


Food chains food webs

Food Chains & Food Webs

  • Food Chains – are representations of how energy is transferred from one organism to another

    • Because an organism rarely eats one type of food, food chains rarely occur in nature

  • Food Webs – are representations of the many possible energy pathways to organism.

    • Energy moves from one organism to the next in a one way direction

    • Any energy not immediately used by the organism is stored in it’s tissues

    • Only the energy stored in tissues can be used by the next organism


Energy pyramids

Energy Pyramids

  • Energy Pyramid – represents the loss of energy between each level of the food chain

  • Energy pyramids have large bases and narrow tops. This represents that the amount of available energy is greater at the bottom and reduced as you go up

  • Most organisms use the energy they consume and store very little


Habitat and niche

Habitat and Niche

  • Habitat– is the environment in which an organism lives

  • Niche – is an organisms way of life within an ecosystem

    • It includes an organisms habitat, food sources, predators, and its competitors

    • Abiotic factors (sunlight, soil, etc) are also included in a niche


Chapter 12 quiz 2

Chapter 12 – Quiz 2

  • 1) ____________ are organisms that use sunlight to make their food.

  • 2) ____________ are organisms that eat other organisms to obtain their energy

  • 3) ___________ are organisms that get their energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms

  • 4) ___________ is the environment in which an organism lives.

  • 5) ___________ is the way an organism lives in its environment.

  • B) ___________ is the name of the organism that is eaten by another organism


Section 3 types of interactions

Section 3 – Types of Interactions

  • Interactions with the Environment

    • Limiting Factor – is when one or more resource that an organism needs, becomes scare

      • Resources include; food, water, living space, etc.

      • Any single resource can become a limiting factor

    • Carrying Capacity – is the largest population that an environment can support


Interactions among organisms

Interactions Among Organisms

  • Populations contain interacting individuals of the same species, while communities contain interacting populations of several species

  • Scientists have described 4 ways that species and individuals affect each other

  • 1) Competition – when two or more individuals or populations try to use the same limited resource

    • Because resources are limited when one individual uses it there is less available for the other individuals


Chapter 12

  • 2) Predator and Prey

    • Prey – is the organism that gets eaten

    • Predator - the organism that eats the prey

  • Predator Adaptions

    • In order to survive predators must be able to catch their prey

    • Predators must have adaptions that benefit (speed. Camouflage, poisons, etc)

  • Prey Adaptations

    • Prey have adaptations themselves to help keep them from being eaten


Chapter 12

  • 3) Symbiosis

    • Symbiosis – is a close, long-long term association between two or more species

    • There are three types of symbiotic relationships:

      • A) Mutualism

        • Mutualism - is a symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit

      • B) Commensalism

        • Commensalism – is a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and other remains unaffected

      • C) Parasitism

        • Parasitism – is a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed .


Coevolution

Coevolution

  • Coevolution – is a long-term change that takes place in two species because of their close interactions with one another.


Chapter 12 quiz 3

Chapter 12 Quiz 3

  • 1) ___________ is when one or more resource becomes scarce

  • 2) ___________ is the largest population that an environment can support

  • 3) ___________ is an organism that eats another organism

  • 4) ___________ is a close long-term association between two or more species

  • 5)___________ is a long-term change that takes place between two species because their close interactions with one another

  • B) (3 points) – List the five levels of environmental organization from smallest to largest


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