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UNIT TWO. Understanding Hazardous Materials. Potential Outcomes TRACEM. Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion) Radiological Asphyxiation (Oxygen Deficiency) Chemical exposure Etiological (Biological Hazards) Mechanical. Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion).

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unit two

UNIT TWO

Understanding Hazardous Materials

potential outcomes tracem
Potential OutcomesTRACEM
  • Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion)
  • Radiological
  • Asphyxiation (Oxygen Deficiency)
  • Chemical exposure
  • Etiological (Biological Hazards)
  • Mechanical
thermal fire and or explosion
Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion)
  • Heat from a fire or the heat released by a chemical reaction
  • Extreme cold, such as liquefied gas or cryogenic liquids
radiological

+ +

Radiological

Alpha - Most damaging, but least penetrating

Hazard – Internal

Shielding – Paper, dead layer of skin, travels 1 to 2 cm in air

Beta- Small particle; low penetration

Hazard - Primarily external, but also internal

Shielding - Plastic, safety glasses, travels several feet in air

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-

slide5

Radiological (cont.)

Gamma / X - Highly penetratingHazard - External - most external dose due to gammaShielding - Lead, steel, concrete, thick layers of water

  • Neutron - Highly penetrating
  • Hazard - External - most external dose due to gamma
  • Shielding – plastic, water

N

characteristics of radiation
Characteristics of Radiation

Example of the penetrating power of the various types of ionizing radiation

asphyxiation
Asphyxiation
  • Oxygen Deficiency
  • Chemical Reaction THE RELEASE OF CERTAIN PRODUCTS (I.E. NITROGEN) CAN DEPLETE THE OXYGEN LEVEL BELOW SURVIVAL LIMITS.
chemical
Chemical
  • Toxic or poisonous effects
  • Destructive effects from the exposure of the chemical on human tissue
etiological
Etiological
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses

Bacillus anthracis

mechanical
Mechanical
  • Debris
  • Excessive percussion (Noise)
routes of exposure
Routes of exposure
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Absorption
  • Injection
inhalation
Inhalation
  • Nose
  • Throat
  • Trachea
  • Lungs
ingestion
Ingestion
  • Mouth
  • Throat
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Intestines
absorption
Absorption
  • Eyes
  • Skin
injection
Injection
  • Needles
  • Projectiles
  • Shards
  • Nails
exposure to hazards
Exposure to Hazards
  • Acute
  • Chronic
  • Both types of exposures can have acute (immediate) and/or chronic (long term) effects.
terrorist events
Terrorist Events
  • Intentional release
  • Secondary devices
  • Inflict mass casualties
terrorist chemical agents
Terrorist Chemical Agents
  • Choking Agents
  • Blood Agents
  • Blister Agents
  • Nerve Agents

The symptoms of these exposures can range from a runny nose to rapid death and are considered to be available to terrorist groups worldwide.

emergency medical care
Emergency Medical Care

Treatment only after emergency decon

“Safety First”

emergency decon
Emergency Decon

If a rescue is attempted and is successful

  • the victim and the rescuer should be flushed

with copious amounts of water

  • Strip their outer level of clothing
  • await hazardous materials operations level

responders to arrive

THE RESCUER NOW BECOMES A VICTIM BECAUSE OF UNKNOWN HAZARD EXPOSURE!!!

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