Unit two
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UNIT TWO. Understanding Hazardous Materials. Potential Outcomes TRACEM. Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion) Radiological Asphyxiation (Oxygen Deficiency) Chemical exposure Etiological (Biological Hazards) Mechanical. Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion).

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UNIT TWO

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Unit two

UNIT TWO

Understanding Hazardous Materials


Potential outcomes tracem

Potential OutcomesTRACEM

  • Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion)

  • Radiological

  • Asphyxiation (Oxygen Deficiency)

  • Chemical exposure

  • Etiological (Biological Hazards)

  • Mechanical


Thermal fire and or explosion

Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion)

  • Heat from a fire or the heat released by a chemical reaction

  • Extreme cold, such as liquefied gas or cryogenic liquids


Radiological

+ +

Radiological

Alpha- Most damaging, but least penetrating

Hazard – Internal

Shielding – Paper, dead layer of skin, travels 1 to 2 cm in air

Beta- Small particle; low penetration

Hazard - Primarily external, but also internal

Shielding - Plastic, safety glasses, travels several feet in air

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Unit two

Radiological (cont.)

Gamma / X - Highly penetratingHazard - External - most external dose due to gammaShielding - Lead, steel, concrete, thick layers of water

  • Neutron - Highly penetrating

  • Hazard - External - most external dose due to gamma

  • Shielding – plastic, water

N


Characteristics of radiation

Characteristics of Radiation

Example of the penetrating power of the various types of ionizing radiation


Asphyxiation

Asphyxiation

  • Oxygen Deficiency

  • Chemical Reaction THE RELEASE OF CERTAIN PRODUCTS (I.E. NITROGEN) CAN DEPLETE THE OXYGEN LEVEL BELOW SURVIVAL LIMITS.


Chemical

Chemical

  • Toxic or poisonous effects

  • Destructive effects from the exposure of the chemical on human tissue


Etiological

Etiological

  • Bacteria

  • Viruses

Bacillus anthracis


Mechanical

Mechanical

  • Debris

  • Excessive percussion (Noise)


Routes of exposure

Routes of exposure

  • Inhalation

  • Ingestion

  • Absorption

  • Injection


Inhalation

Inhalation

  • Nose

  • Throat

  • Trachea

  • Lungs


Ingestion

Ingestion

  • Mouth

  • Throat

  • Esophagus

  • Stomach

  • Intestines


Absorption

Absorption

  • Eyes

  • Skin


Injection

Injection

  • Needles

  • Projectiles

  • Shards

  • Nails


Exposure to hazards

Exposure to Hazards

  • Acute

  • Chronic

  • Both types of exposures can have acute (immediate) and/or chronic (long term) effects.


Terrorist events

Terrorist Events

  • Intentional release

  • Secondary devices

  • Inflict mass casualties


Terrorist chemical agents

Terrorist Chemical Agents

  • Choking Agents

  • Blood Agents

  • Blister Agents

  • Nerve Agents

The symptoms of these exposures can range from a runny nose to rapid death and are considered to be available to terrorist groups worldwide.


Emergency medical care

Emergency Medical Care

Treatment only after emergency decon

“Safety First”


Emergency decon

Emergency Decon

If a rescue is attempted and is successful

  • the victim and the rescuer should be flushed

    with copious amounts of water

  • Strip their outer level of clothing

  • await hazardous materials operations level

    responders to arrive

    THE RESCUER NOW BECOMES A VICTIM BECAUSE OF UNKNOWN HAZARD EXPOSURE!!!


Unit two test

UNIT TWO TEST


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