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UNIT TWO. Understanding Hazardous Materials. Potential Outcomes TRACEM. Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion) Radiological Asphyxiation (Oxygen Deficiency) Chemical exposure Etiological (Biological Hazards) Mechanical. Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion).

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UNIT TWO

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UNIT TWO

Understanding Hazardous Materials


Potential OutcomesTRACEM

  • Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion)

  • Radiological

  • Asphyxiation (Oxygen Deficiency)

  • Chemical exposure

  • Etiological (Biological Hazards)

  • Mechanical


Thermal (Fire and/or Explosion)

  • Heat from a fire or the heat released by a chemical reaction

  • Extreme cold, such as liquefied gas or cryogenic liquids


+ +

Radiological

Alpha- Most damaging, but least penetrating

Hazard – Internal

Shielding – Paper, dead layer of skin, travels 1 to 2 cm in air

Beta- Small particle; low penetration

Hazard - Primarily external, but also internal

Shielding - Plastic, safety glasses, travels several feet in air

-

-


Radiological (cont.)

Gamma / X - Highly penetratingHazard - External - most external dose due to gammaShielding - Lead, steel, concrete, thick layers of water

  • Neutron - Highly penetrating

  • Hazard - External - most external dose due to gamma

  • Shielding – plastic, water

N


Characteristics of Radiation

Example of the penetrating power of the various types of ionizing radiation


Asphyxiation

  • Oxygen Deficiency

  • Chemical Reaction THE RELEASE OF CERTAIN PRODUCTS (I.E. NITROGEN) CAN DEPLETE THE OXYGEN LEVEL BELOW SURVIVAL LIMITS.


Chemical

  • Toxic or poisonous effects

  • Destructive effects from the exposure of the chemical on human tissue


Etiological

  • Bacteria

  • Viruses

Bacillus anthracis


Mechanical

  • Debris

  • Excessive percussion (Noise)


Routes of exposure

  • Inhalation

  • Ingestion

  • Absorption

  • Injection


Inhalation

  • Nose

  • Throat

  • Trachea

  • Lungs


Ingestion

  • Mouth

  • Throat

  • Esophagus

  • Stomach

  • Intestines


Absorption

  • Eyes

  • Skin


Injection

  • Needles

  • Projectiles

  • Shards

  • Nails


Exposure to Hazards

  • Acute

  • Chronic

  • Both types of exposures can have acute (immediate) and/or chronic (long term) effects.


Terrorist Events

  • Intentional release

  • Secondary devices

  • Inflict mass casualties


Terrorist Chemical Agents

  • Choking Agents

  • Blood Agents

  • Blister Agents

  • Nerve Agents

The symptoms of these exposures can range from a runny nose to rapid death and are considered to be available to terrorist groups worldwide.


Emergency Medical Care

Treatment only after emergency decon

“Safety First”


Emergency Decon

If a rescue is attempted and is successful

  • the victim and the rescuer should be flushed

    with copious amounts of water

  • Strip their outer level of clothing

  • await hazardous materials operations level

    responders to arrive

    THE RESCUER NOW BECOMES A VICTIM BECAUSE OF UNKNOWN HAZARD EXPOSURE!!!


UNIT TWO TEST


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