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Mitosis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Mitosis. By: Timmy Mudlock Zane Stelevich. Prophase. Prophase in an Animal Cell. Prophase in a Plant Cell. Description. During Prophase, changes occur in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, in the nucleoli disappear.

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By: Timmy Mudlock

Zane Stelevich

  • During Prophase, changes occur in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, in the nucleoli disappear.
  • The chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled and folded into discreet chromosomes observable with a light microscope
  • Each duplicated chromosomes appears as two identical sister chromatids joined at the centromere.
  • In the cytoplasm, the mitodic spindle forms; it is made of microtubules and associated proteins arranged between the two centrosomes.
  • During prophase, the centrosomes move away from each other, apparently propelled along the surface of the nucleus by the lengthening bundles of microtubules between them.
  • The centosomes are now at opposite ends or poles, of the cell.
  • The chromosomes convey on the metaphase plate, the plane the is equidistant between the spindles two poles
  • The centromeres of all the chromosomes are aligned with one another at the metaphase plate
  • For each chromosome, the kinetochores of the sister chromatids face opposite poles of the cell
  • Thus, the iddenticalchromatids of the cell are attached to kinetochores microtubules radiating from opposite ends of the cell
  • The entire apparatus of nonkinetochore microtubules plus kinetochores microtubules is called the spindle because of its shape
  • Anaphase begins when the paired centromeres of each chromosome divide, liberated the sister chromatids from each other
  • Each chromatid is now considered a full fledged chromosome.
  • The spindle appparatus then begins moving the once joined sisters toward opposite poles of the cell.
  • Because the kinetochore microtubules are attached to the centromere, , the chromosomes move centromere first.
  • The kinetocheremicrotubles shorten as the chromosomes approach the cell poles.
  • At the same time, the poles of the cell also move farther apart. By the end of anaphase, the two poles of the cell have equivalent and complete collections of chromosomes.
  • Telophase , the nonkinetochore microtubules elongate the cell still more, and the daughter nuclei begin to form at the two poles of the cell where the chromosomes have gathered.
  • Nuclear envelopes are formed from the fragments of the parent cell’s nuclear envelope and other portions of the endomembrane system.
  • In a further reversal of prophase and prometaphase events, the nucleoli reappear and the chromatin fiber of each chromosomes becomes less tightly coiled.
  • Mitosis, the equal division of one nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei, is now complete.