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+. =. Health Psychology. Key Concepts. Health Psychology : health is the influence of both our physiology (diet/exercise) and psychology (stress/social support). Lifestyle : the patterns of our everyday decisions which characterize our behavior.

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Health psychology l.jpg

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Health Psychology


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Key Concepts

  • Health Psychology: health is the influence of both our physiology (diet/exercise) and psychology (stress/social support).

  • Lifestyle: the patterns of our everyday decisions which characterize our behavior.

  • Stress: personal response to events that threaten to disrupt our daily behaviors.


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General Adaptation Syndrome

  • Alarm

  • Resistance

  • Exhaustion

COGNITIVE APPRAISAL


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Sympathetic

Fight or Flight

Eyes open Wide

Mouth Goes Dry

Hr Increase

Start to Sweat

Parasympathetic

Maintenance & Refuel

Eyes constrict

Mouth Waters

Digestion

Blood away from muscles

Autonomic Nervous System


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Level of stress

(Holmes & Rahe, 1967)

Length of the stressor

(Cohen et al., 1998)

Relationship between Stress & Health

p. 498


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Stress Buffers

  • Social Support

  • Optimism vs. Pessimism

  • Exercise

p. 503


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Optimists

Problem-focused

Suppress competing activities

Look for social support

Pessimists

Denial/ Distancing

Disengage from goal

Focus on their feelings

Coping Strategies

p. 503



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Strategies for Health Education

  • Health Belief Model (Becker, 1974)

  • PRECEDE Model (Green, 1984)

  • Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1977)

  • Stages of Change (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983)

Elder, Apodaca, Parra-Medina, &DeNuncio (1998)


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Strong positive intention to change.

Min of barriers.

Posses the skills.

“Believe” in the intervention

Perceive the behavior as normal.

Consistent with self-schema.

“Feel” good about the behavior.

Receive reinforcement from your environment.

Overlapping Ideas


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Health Belief Model

1. Perceived threat

2. Belief a behavior will alleviate stress


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Influence of Social Factors

  • Individualistic Perspective

  • Religion

  • Cultural/Social Isolation

    • SES

    • acculturation


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Risk Factors

Smoking

Diet

Exercise

Alcohol

Interventions

Social Support

Contingency Contracts

Extinction

Drug therapy

Risk Factors & Wellness

Problems

  • Cardiovascular

  • Cancer

  • Overweight

  • Korsokov’s

  • Risky Behaviors


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Prevention

  • Primary Prevention: reduce the occurrence of the illness.

    • Gain Framing

  • Secondary Prevention: decrease the severity of the illness. Importance of early detection.

    • Loss Framing


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