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AP Music Theory Vocabulary. Jeopardy style. Musical texture- all performers on same notes and rhythms without harmony. monophonic (monophony) --unison/doubled at octave--. Musical texture- melody plus accompaniment can be chordal. homophonic  (homophony) Arpeggiation, Alberti Bass.

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musical texture all performers on same notes and rhythms without harmony
Musical texture-all performers on same notes and rhythms without harmony

monophonic

(monophony)

--unison/doubled at octave--

musical texture melody plus accompaniment can be chordal
Musical texture-melody plus accompanimentcan be chordal

homophonic 

(homophony)

Arpeggiation, Alberti Bass

musical texture all performers on same melody but add individual embellishments
Musical texture-all performers on same melody but add individual embellishments

heterophonic

(heterophony)

--often Non-Western--

musical texture more that one independent line occurring at the same time
Musical texture-more that one independent line occurring at the same time

polyphonic

(polyphony)

--imitative and non-imitative—

fugue, canon

can be contrapuntal

meter note value for the first level of subdivision
Meter-note value for the first level of subdivision

microbeat

(i.e. eighth note in 2/4 time)

meter regular grouping of macrobeats in two s
Meter-regular grouping of macrobeats in two’s

duple

2/4, 2/2 = simple duple

4/4 can be called quadruple

6/8= compound duple

meter macrobeats grouped in three s
Meter-macrobeats grouped in three’s

triple

3/4 = simple triple

9/8 = compound triple

meter combinations of simple and compound macrobeats within the measure
Meter-combinations of simple and compound macrobeats within the measure

asymmetrical or irregular

5/4 (2+3 or 3+2), 7/8

r hythm an accent of length rather than volume
Rhythm-an accent of length, rather than volume

agogic accent

perceived accent because this longer note is surrounded by faster notes or is

deliberately lengthened by performer.

(Viennese Waltz, Mazurka)

rhythm an accent resulting from pattern of notes in the rhythm
Rhythm-an accent resulting from pattern of notes in the rhythm

metrical accent

(like in syncopation)

also the ‘downbeat accent’

rhythm metric note groupings within the measure that are different from typical metric pattern
Rhythm- metric note groupings within the measure that are different from typical metric pattern

cross rhythm

(as in hemiola)

9/8 = 2+2+2+3 rather than 3+3+3

rhythm rhythmic feel when eighth note pairs feel like the outer notes of a triplet group
Rhythm-rhythmic feel when eighth note pairs feel like the outer notes of a triplet group

swing rhythm

expression an accent of length rather than volume
Expression-an accent of length, rather than volume

agogic accent

perceived accent because this longer note is surrounded by faster notes or is

deliberately lengthened by performer.

(Viennese Waltz, Mazurka)

expression an accent of volume emphasis is created because one note is louder than the others
Expression-an accent of volume, emphasis is created because one note is louder than the others

dynamic accent

expression an accent resulting from pattern of notes in the rhythm
Expression-an accent resulting from pattern of notes in the rhythm

metrical accent

(like in syncopation)

also the ‘downbeat’ accent

harmony v i or v i
Harmony-V – I or V-i

authentic cadence

harmony phrase ending v i or v i both chords in root position soprano ends on tonic
Harmony-phrase ending V-I or V-iboth chords in root position,soprano ends on tonic

perfect authentic cadence (PAC)

harmony phrase ending v i or v i both chords in root position soprano ends on 3 rd or 5th
Harmony- - phrase endingV-I or V-iboth chords in root position,soprano ends on 3rd or 5th

imperfect authentic cadence (IAC)

harmony phrase ending on v
Harmony-phrase ending on V

half cadence

(semi cadence)

harmony phrase ending iv6 v in minor key only slow mvt of baroque concerti
Harmony-phrase ending iv6 – V (in minor key only)[slow mvt. of Baroque concerti]

phrygian half cadence

harmony 6 4
Harmony64

cadential

6---5

4---3

I

V

harmony progression
Harmony-Progression

up 2, down 3,

up 4, down 5,

up 6, down 7

except V or vii never goes to iii/III

harmony circle progression
Harmony-Circle Progression

roots move

up 4 or down 5

harmony retrogression regression
Harmony-Retrogression (regression)

roots move

opposite rules of progression (i.e. ii-I)

harmony full transcription of harmonies indicated by figured bass includes roman numeral analysis
Harmony-Full transcription of harmonies indicated by Figured Bassincludes Roman numeral analysis

realization

slide56

Harmony-the prolongation or delay of a cadence by the addition of material beyond (i.e. before or after) the point at which the cadence is expected

cadential extension

(pre-cadential/post-cadential)

harmony chord s that sound like they are travelling or leading to dominant vi ii iii
Harmony-chord(s) that sound like they are travelling or leading to dominant(vi, ii, iii)

predominant function

harmonic error contradicting accidentals on same or adjacent beats
-Harmonic Error-contradicting accidentals on same or adjacent beats

false relation

cross relation

harmonic features treatment of a new pitch so that it indicates a change of key
-Harmonic Features-treatment of a new pitch so that it indicates a change of key

tonicization

non harmonic tone nct accented or unaccented connect notes to create stepwise melodic motion
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)accented or unaccentedconnect notes to create stepwise melodic motion

passing tone

slide64
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)accented or unaccentedmove by step away from chord tone & back to same note by step

neighbor tone

(upper or lower)

non harmonic tone nct usually unaccented notes above below chord tone upper lower neighbor by step
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)usually unaccentednotes above & below chord tone(upper & lower neighbor – by step)

double neighbor

cambiata

changing tones

slide69
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)tone that remains the same even though upper harmonies are changing(as if you exclude bass from harmony)

pedal tone

(pedal point)

[if in another voice, inverted pedal tone]

non harmonic tone nct accented held over from previous chord resolves up by step
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)accentedheld over from previous chord,resolves up by step

retardation

non harmonic tone nct accented held over from previous chord resolves down by step
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)accentedheld over from previous chordresolves down by step

suspension

slide72
-Musical Styles-category that identifies pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions

genre

musical styles elaborate accompanied song for solo voice from a cantata opera or oratorio
-Musical Styles-elaborate accompanied song for solo voice from a cantata, opera, or oratorio

aria

slide74
-Musical Styles-vocal music composition, usually written for one voice with piano or orchestral accompaniment

art song

slide75
-Musical Styles-composition featuring one or more solo instruments with orchestra, typically in three movements

concerto

slide77

-Musical Styles-instrumental composition(especially of the 17th or 18th century) consisting of a succession of sections (dances) in the same or related keys

suite

slide78

-Musical Styles-composition featuring one or more solo instruments with accompaniment (keyboard or continuo), typically in three movements

sonata

slide79

-Musical Styles-composition for an orchestra and one or more solo instruments, typically in three movements(ripieno=tutti, concertino=soli)

concerto grosso

slide80

-Musical Styles-‘rhythm section’ of the baroquebass line instrument like cello plus a chordal instrument like harpsichord, lute or guitar to realize the figured bass

(basso) continuo

thoroughbass

slide81
-Musical Styles- imitative polyphony in which a theme or themes (subjects) are stated successively in all of the voices

fugue

slide82
-Musical Styles-large scale theatrical musical work featuring singing and instrumental music to relate a story

opera

slide83
-Musical Styles-large scale musical work featuring singing and instrumental music to relate a biblical story

oratorio

slide84
-Musical Styles-large scale musical work featuring solo and ensemble singing and instrumental music based on a sacred text

cantata

slide85

-Musical Styles-style of singing in operas, oratorios, and cantatas in which the text is declaimed in the rhythm of natural speech with slight melodic variation and little orchestral accompaniment.

recitative

slide86

-Musical Styles- A piece or movement that serves as an introduction, precedes a fugue, opens a suite, or precedes a church service; also a short piece for solo instrument in this style.

prelude

musical styles a sonata like multi movement composition for 2 violins 1 viola 1 cello
-Musical Styles-a sonata-like multi-movement composition for 2 violins, 1 viola, 1 cello

string quartet

form 2 contrasting sections second section ends with material from first section
-Form-2 contrasting sections, second section ends with material from first section

rounded binary

form main melody repeats with changes including rhythm meter mode harmonization embellishment
-Form-Main melody repeats with changes including rhythm, meter, mode, harmonization, embellishment

Theme & Variations

form main melody repeats with changes including rhythm meter mode harmonization embellishment1
-Form-Main melody repeats with changes including rhythm, meter, mode, harmonization, embellishment

Theme & Variations

form aaba
-Form-AABA

Jazz song form

form section of song with same lyrics each time often contains the hook
-Form-section of song with same lyrics each time (often contains the ‘hook’)

chorus

(refrain)

slide104
-Form-repetition of main song (usually aaba) featuring whole ensemble, different combos and solos on each repetition.

chorus format

form section ending that leads back to beginning of main melody often v with i at start of section
-Form-section ending that leads back to beginning of main melody(often V - - - with I at start of section)

turnaround

melodic features when the last note of one phrase serves as first note of next phrase
-Melodic Features-when the last note of one phrase serves as first note of next phrase

(phrase) elision

slide117
-Melodic Features-precise repetition of a melodic figure at successive pitch levels (preserves all intervals & qualities)

real sequence

slide118
-Melodic Features-repetition of a melodic figure at successive pitch levels using only the tones of the prevailing scale

tonal sequence

slide119
-Melodic Features-repetition of a melodic figure at successive pitch levels with embellishments but retaining original character

modified sequence

slide120
-Melodic Features-repetition of a parts of a melodic figure and exact repetition of other parts of the melody

false sequence

melodic features musical unit formed by 2 or more adjacent phrases that begin in the same manner
-Melodic Features-musical unit formed by 2 (or more) adjacent phrases that begin in the same manner

parallel period

slide123
-Melodic Features-musical unit formed by 2 (or more) adjacent phrases that have different melodic content

contrasting period

slide124

-Melodic Features-musical unit formed by 4 (or more) adjacent phrases using repetition and contrasting melodic ideas(commonly aaba, abab, etc.)

double period

slide125
-Melodic Features-melodic elongation, often through repetition & sequencescan be at beginning, middle or cadence

phrase extension

melodic features first phrase of a musical period with a complementary phrase following
-Melodic Features-first phrase of a musical period, with a complementary phrase following

antecedent

melodic features second phrase of a musical period that completes or answers the first phrase
-Melodic Features-second phrase of a musical period that completes or answers the first phrase

consequent

melodic features additional independent melody designed to fit with the principal melody
-Melodic Features-additional independent melody designed to fit with the principal melody

countermelody

slide131

-Melodic Features-additional melody, usually for a soloist including embellishment(not to be left out – can also indicate an accompaniment)

obbligato

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