Ap music theory vocabulary
Download
1 / 131

AP Music Theory Vocabulary - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 118 Views
  • Uploaded on

AP Music Theory Vocabulary. Jeopardy style. Musical texture- all performers on same notes and rhythms without harmony. monophonic (monophony) --unison/doubled at octave--. Musical texture- melody plus accompaniment can be chordal. homophonic  (homophony) Arpeggiation, Alberti Bass.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' AP Music Theory Vocabulary' - derex


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Musical texture all performers on same notes and rhythms without harmony
Musical texture-all performers on same notes and rhythms without harmony

monophonic

(monophony)

--unison/doubled at octave--


Musical texture melody plus accompaniment can be chordal
Musical texture-melody plus accompanimentcan be chordal

homophonic 

(homophony)

Arpeggiation, Alberti Bass


Musical texture chordal all voices move at the same time
Musical texture-chordal all voices move at the same time

homorhythmic


Musical texture all performers on same melody but add individual embellishments
Musical texture-all performers on same melody but add individual embellishments

heterophonic

(heterophony)

--often Non-Western--


Musical texture more that one independent line occurring at the same time
Musical texture-more that one independent line occurring at the same time

polyphonic

(polyphony)

--imitative and non-imitative—

fugue, canon

can be contrapuntal


Meter note value that gets 1 pulse in the music
Meter-note value that gets 1 pulse in the music

macrobeat


Meter note value for the first level of subdivision
Meter-note value for the first level of subdivision

microbeat

(i.e. eighth note in 2/4 time)


Meter macrobeat is divided into 2 equal parts
Meter-macrobeat is divided into 2 equal parts

simple

2/4, 2/2


Meter macrobeat is divided into 3 equal parts
Meter-macrobeat is divided into 3 equal parts

compound

6/8, 3/16


Meter regular grouping of macrobeats in two s
Meter-regular grouping of macrobeats in two’s

duple

2/4, 2/2 = simple duple

4/4 can be called quadruple

6/8= compound duple


Meter macrobeats grouped in three s
Meter-macrobeats grouped in three’s

triple

3/4 = simple triple

9/8 = compound triple


Meter combinations of simple and compound macrobeats within the measure
Meter-combinations of simple and compound macrobeats within the measure

asymmetrical or irregular

5/4 (2+3 or 3+2), 7/8


Rhythm placement of an accent where one would not normally occur
Rhythm-placement of an accent where one would not normally occur

syncopation


R hythm an accent of length rather than volume
Rhythm-an accent of length, rather than volume

agogic accent

perceived accent because this longer note is surrounded by faster notes or is

deliberately lengthened by performer.

(Viennese Waltz, Mazurka)


Rhythm an accent resulting from pattern of notes in the rhythm
Rhythm-an accent resulting from pattern of notes in the rhythm

metrical accent

(like in syncopation)

also the ‘downbeat accent’


Rhythm pick up notes incomplete measure as the start of a phrase
Rhythm-‘pick up’ notesincomplete measure as the start of a phrase

anacrusis


Rhythm doubling the note values
Rhythm-doubling the note values

augmentation


Rhythm halving the note values
Rhythm-halving the note values

diminution


Rhythm two groups of three beats are replaced by three groups of two beats
Rhythm-two groups of three beats are replaced by three groups of two beats.

hemiola


Rhythm in compound meter group of 2 notes in the space of 3
Rhythm-in compound meter, group of 2 notes in the space of 3

duplet


Rhythm in simple meter group of 3 notes in the space of 2
Rhythm-in simple meter, group of 3 notes in the space of 2

triplet


Rhythm in compound meter group of 4 notes in the space of 3
Rhythm-in compound meter, group of 4 notes in the space of 3

quadruplet


Rhythm in simple meter group of 6 notes in the space of 2
Rhythm-in simple meter, group of 6 notes in the space of 2

sextuplet


Rhythm metric note groupings within the measure that are different from typical metric pattern
Rhythm- metric note groupings within the measure that are different from typical metric pattern

cross rhythm

(as in hemiola)

9/8 = 2+2+2+3 rather than 3+3+3


Rhythm simultaneous contrasting metric patterns
Rhythm-Simultaneous contrasting metric patterns

polyrhythm


Rhythm rhythmic feel when eighth note pairs feel like the outer notes of a triplet group
Rhythm-rhythmic feel when eighth note pairs feel like the outer notes of a triplet group

swing rhythm


Expression an accent of length rather than volume
Expression-an accent of length, rather than volume

agogic accent

perceived accent because this longer note is surrounded by faster notes or is

deliberately lengthened by performer.

(Viennese Waltz, Mazurka)


Expression an accent of volume emphasis is created because one note is louder than the others
Expression-an accent of volume, emphasis is created because one note is louder than the others

dynamic accent


Expression an accent resulting from pattern of notes in the rhythm
Expression-an accent resulting from pattern of notes in the rhythm

metrical accent

(like in syncopation)

also the ‘downbeat’ accent


Harmony point at which a phrase comes to rest
Harmony-point at which a phrase comes to rest

cadence


Harmony v i or v i
Harmony-V – I or V-i

authentic cadence


Harmony phrase ending v i or v i both chords in root position soprano ends on tonic
Harmony-phrase ending V-I or V-iboth chords in root position,soprano ends on tonic

perfect authentic cadence (PAC)


Harmony phrase ending v i or v i both chords in root position soprano ends on 3 rd or 5th
Harmony- - phrase endingV-I or V-iboth chords in root position,soprano ends on 3rd or 5th

imperfect authentic cadence (IAC)


Harmony phrase ending on v
Harmony-phrase ending on V

half cadence

(semi cadence)


Harmony phrase ending iv i or iv i
Harmony-phrase ending IV – I or iv-i

plagal cadence


Harmony phrase ending v vi v ii when v vi vi is in root position
Harmony-phrase ending V-vi, V-ii(when V-vi, vi is in root position)

deceptive cadence


Harmony phrase ending iv6 v in minor key only slow mvt of baroque concerti
Harmony-phrase ending iv6 – V (in minor key only)[slow mvt. of Baroque concerti]

phrygian half cadence


Harmony triad m3 p5 above root m3 plus m3
Harmony-triadM3 & P5 above root(M3 plus m3)

Major


Harmony triad m3 p5 above root m3 plus m31
Harmony-triadm3 & P5 above root(m3 plus M3)

minor


Harmony triad m3 d5 above root m3 plus m3
Harmony-triadm3 & d5 above root(m3 plus m3)

diminished


Harmony triad m3 a5 above root m3 plus m3
Harmony-triadM3 & A5 above root(M3 plus M3)

Augmented


Harmony major triad plus minor 7 th
Harmony-Major triad plus minor 7th

Dominant 7th


Harmony major triad plus major 7th
Harmony-Major Triad plus Major 7th

Major 7th


Harmony minor triad plus minor 7th
Harmony-minor triad plus minor 7th

minor 7th


Harmony diminished triad plus minor 7th
Harmony-diminished triad plus minor 7th

½ dim 7th

Ø

m7♭5


Harmony 4 notes all minor thirds
Harmony-4 notes, all minor thirds

fully diminished 7th


Harmony 6 4
Harmony64

cadential

6---5

4---3

I

V


Harmony 6 4 unaccented placement middle of passing tones in bass
Harmony64unaccented placementmiddle of passing tones in bass

passing 6

4


Harmony 6 4 bass note stays same upper notes of harmony root 3 rd move by step return
Harmony64bass note stays sameupper notes of harmony (root & 3rd)move by step & return

pedal 6

4


Harmony progression
Harmony-Progression

up 2, down 3,

up 4, down 5,

up 6, down 7

except V or vii never goes to iii/III


Harmony circle progression
Harmony-Circle Progression

roots move

up 4 or down 5


Harmony retrogression regression
Harmony-Retrogression (regression)

roots move

opposite rules of progression (i.e. ii-I)


Harmony raised 3 rd on tonic chord at end of passage in minor key
Harmony-Raised 3rd on tonic chord at end of passage in minor key

Picardy third


Harmony full transcription of harmonies indicated by figured bass includes roman numeral analysis
Harmony-Full transcription of harmonies indicated by Figured Bassincludes Roman numeral analysis

realization


Harmony-the prolongation or delay of a cadence by the addition of material beyond (i.e. before or after) the point at which the cadence is expected

cadential extension

(pre-cadential/post-cadential)


Harmony chord that sounds most stable like home
Harmony-chord that sounds most stable(like ‘home’)

tonic function


Harmony chord s that sound like they are travelling or leading to dominant vi ii iii
Harmony-chord(s) that sound like they are travelling or leading to dominant(vi, ii, iii)

predominant function


Harmony chord that leads to tonic v vii
Harmony-chord that leads to tonic(V, vii°)

dominant function


Harmonic error contradicting accidentals on same or adjacent beats
-Harmonic Error-contradicting accidentals on same or adjacent beats

false relation

cross relation


Harmonic features treatment of a new pitch so that it indicates a change of key
-Harmonic Features-treatment of a new pitch so that it indicates a change of key

tonicization


Harmony pace at which harmonies change
Harmony-pace at which harmonies change

harmonic rhythm


Non harmonic tone nct accented or unaccented connect notes to create stepwise melodic motion
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)accented or unaccentedconnect notes to create stepwise melodic motion

passing tone


Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)accented or unaccentedmove by step away from chord tone & back to same note by step

neighbor tone

(upper or lower)


Non harmonic tone nct belongs to the next chord usually in soprano
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)belongs to the next chord(usually in soprano)

anticipation


Non harmonic tone nct accented approach by skip resolve by step usually in soprano
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)accentedapproach by skip, resolve by step(usually in soprano)

appogiatura


Non harmonic tone nct unaccented approach by step depart by skip
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)unaccentedapproach by step, depart by skip

escape


Non harmonic tone nct usually unaccented notes above below chord tone upper lower neighbor by step
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)usually unaccentednotes above & below chord tone(upper & lower neighbor – by step)

double neighbor

cambiata

changing tones


Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)tone that remains the same even though upper harmonies are changing(as if you exclude bass from harmony)

pedal tone

(pedal point)

[if in another voice, inverted pedal tone]


Non harmonic tone nct accented held over from previous chord resolves up by step
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)accentedheld over from previous chord,resolves up by step

retardation


Non harmonic tone nct accented held over from previous chord resolves down by step
Non-Harmonic Tone (NCT)accentedheld over from previous chordresolves down by step

suspension


-Musical Styles-category that identifies pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions

genre


Musical styles elaborate accompanied song for solo voice from a cantata opera or oratorio
-Musical Styles-elaborate accompanied song for solo voice from a cantata, opera, or oratorio

aria


-Musical Styles-vocal music composition, usually written for one voice with piano or orchestral accompaniment

art song


-Musical Styles-composition featuring one or more solo instruments with orchestra, typically in three movements

concerto


Musical styles extended composition in three or more movements for orchestra
-Musical Styles-extended composition in three or more movements for orchestra

symphony


-Musical Styles-instrumental composition(especially of the 17th or 18th century) consisting of a succession of sections (dances) in the same or related keys

suite


-Musical Styles-composition featuring one or more solo instruments with accompaniment (keyboard or continuo), typically in three movements

sonata


-Musical Styles-composition for an orchestra and one or more solo instruments, typically in three movements(ripieno=tutti, concertino=soli)

concerto grosso


-Musical Styles-‘rhythm section’ of the baroquebass line instrument like cello plus a chordal instrument like harpsichord, lute or guitar to realize the figured bass

(basso) continuo

thoroughbass


-Musical Styles- imitative polyphony in which a theme or themes (subjects) are stated successively in all of the voices

fugue


-Musical Styles-large scale theatrical musical work featuring singing and instrumental music to relate a story

opera


-Musical Styles-large scale musical work featuring singing and instrumental music to relate a biblical story

oratorio


-Musical Styles-large scale musical work featuring solo and ensemble singing and instrumental music based on a sacred text

cantata


-Musical Styles-style of singing in operas, oratorios, and cantatas in which the text is declaimed in the rhythm of natural speech with slight melodic variation and little orchestral accompaniment.

recitative


-Musical Styles- A piece or movement that serves as an introduction, precedes a fugue, opens a suite, or precedes a church service; also a short piece for solo instrument in this style.

prelude


Musical styles a final or concluding piece or movement
-Musical Styles-a final or concluding piece or movement

postlude


Musical styles a sonata like multi movement composition for 2 violins 1 viola 1 cello
-Musical Styles-a sonata-like multi-movement composition for 2 violins, 1 viola, 1 cello

string quartet


Form 2 contrasting sections
-Form-2 contrasting sections

binary


Form 2 contrasting sections first section repeats
-Form-2 contrasting sections, first section repeats

ternary


Form 2 contrasting sections second section ends with material from first section
-Form-2 contrasting sections, second section ends with material from first section

rounded binary


Form 3 contrasting sections first section repeats after each contrasting section
-Form-3 contrasting sectionsFirst section repeats after each contrasting section

rondo


Form main melody repeats with different lyrics
-Form-Main melody repeats with different lyrics

strophic

(hymn style)


Form main melody repeats with changes including rhythm meter mode harmonization embellishment
-Form-Main melody repeats with changes including rhythm, meter, mode, harmonization, embellishment

Theme & Variations


Form main melody repeats with changes including rhythm meter mode harmonization embellishment1
-Form-Main melody repeats with changes including rhythm, meter, mode, harmonization, embellishment

Theme & Variations


Form opening section prior to first main theme
-Form-Opening section prior to first main theme

introduction


Form ending section
-Form-ending section

Coda

(tail)


Form aaba
-Form-AABA

Jazz song form


Form transitional section about 2 3 through song usually in the iv key
-Form-transitional section about 2/3 through song, usually in the IV key

bridge


Form transitional section of a composition
-Form-transitional section of a composition

interlude


Form section of song with same lyrics each time often contains the hook
-Form-section of song with same lyrics each time (often contains the ‘hook’)

chorus

(refrain)


Form section of sing with different lyrics for each repetition
-Form-section of sing with different lyrics for each repetition

verse

(stanza)


Form i i i i iv iv i i v iv i
-Form-I I I I IV IV I I V IV I

12 bar blues


-Form-repetition of main song (usually aaba) featuring whole ensemble, different combos and solos on each repetition.

chorus format


Form section ending that leads back to beginning of main melody often v with i at start of section
-Form-section ending that leads back to beginning of main melody(often V - - - with I at start of section)

turnaround


Form musical work lacking any repetition of thematic material
-Form-musical work lacking any repetition of thematic material

through composed


Melodic features doubling note durations or lengthening proportionally
-Melodic Features-doubling note durations(or lengthening proportionally)

augmentation


Melodic features halving or shortening note durations proportionally
-Melodic Features-halving or shortening note durations proportionally

diminution


Melodic features stepwise melodic motion
-Melodic Features-stepwise melodic motion

conjunct


Melodic features melodic motion by skips and leaps
-Melodic Features-melodic motion by skips and leaps

disjunct


Melodic features when the last note of one phrase serves as first note of next phrase
-Melodic Features-when the last note of one phrase serves as first note of next phrase

(phrase) elision


Melodic features reversal of melodic direction
-Melodic Features-reversal of melodic direction

melodic inversion


Melodic features in backwards order
-Melodic Features-in backwards order

retrograde


Melodic features development of melodic ideas
-Melodic Features-development of melodic ideas

motivic transformation


Melodic features melodic or rhythmic figure that recurs
-Melodic Features-melodic or rhythmic figure that recurs

motive


Melodic features repetition of a melodic figure at successive pitch levels
-Melodic Features-repetition of a melodic figure at successive pitch levels

sequence


-Melodic Features-precise repetition of a melodic figure at successive pitch levels (preserves all intervals & qualities)

real sequence


-Melodic Features-repetition of a melodic figure at successive pitch levels using only the tones of the prevailing scale

tonal sequence


-Melodic Features-repetition of a melodic figure at successive pitch levels with embellishments but retaining original character

modified sequence


-Melodic Features-repetition of a parts of a melodic figure and exact repetition of other parts of the melody

false sequence


Melodic features musical unit formed by 2 or more adjacent phrases
-Melodic Features-musical unit formed by 2 (or more) adjacent phrases

period


Melodic features musical unit formed by 2 or more adjacent phrases that begin in the same manner
-Melodic Features-musical unit formed by 2 (or more) adjacent phrases that begin in the same manner

parallel period


-Melodic Features-musical unit formed by 2 (or more) adjacent phrases that have different melodic content

contrasting period


-Melodic Features-musical unit formed by 4 (or more) adjacent phrases using repetition and contrasting melodic ideas(commonly aaba, abab, etc.)

double period


-Melodic Features-melodic elongation, often through repetition & sequencescan be at beginning, middle or cadence

phrase extension


Melodic features climax of phrase usually 2 3 through
-Melodic Features-climax of phrase, (usually 2/3 through)

focal point


Melodic features first phrase of a musical period with a complementary phrase following
-Melodic Features-first phrase of a musical period, with a complementary phrase following

antecedent


Melodic features second phrase of a musical period that completes or answers the first phrase
-Melodic Features-second phrase of a musical period that completes or answers the first phrase

consequent


Melodic features deletion of end of phrase opening motive is kept
-Melodic Features-deletion of end of phrase (opening motive is kept)

truncation


Melodic features additional independent melody designed to fit with the principal melody
-Melodic Features-additional independent melody designed to fit with the principal melody

countermelody


-Melodic Features-additional melody, usually for a soloist including embellishment(not to be left out – can also indicate an accompaniment)

obbligato


ad