SUCCESSFULLY USING BIOMASS TO
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SUCCESSFULLY USING BIOMASS TO HARNESS RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AN EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE WAY. J.E. Naber and F. Goudriaan (BIOFUEL BV). HTU 2000. PERSPECTIVES FOR ENERGY FROM BIOMASS. 1990 2040 ENERGY DEMAND, EJ/a 350 1000

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Htu 2000

SUCCESSFULLY USING BIOMASS TO

HARNESS RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AN EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE WAY

J.E. Naber and F. Goudriaan

(BIOFUEL BV)

HTU 2000


Perspectives for energy from biomass

PERSPECTIVES FOR ENERGY FROM BIOMASS

1990 2040

ENERGY DEMAND, EJ/a 350 1000

FOSSIL FUELS, „ 255 480

RENEWABLES „ 80 >400

HYDROPOWER „ 20 50

WIND „ - 70

SOLAR „ - 130

BIOMASS „ 60 >200


Potential for energy from biomass

POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY FROM BIOMASS

FROM POTENTIALLY AVAILABLE 250 EJ/YR

LAND AREA @ 15 TON(DB)/HA.YR

(ENERGY FARMING ON 10 HA)

BIOMASS RESIDUES 70 EJ/YR

(FORESTRY, WHEAT, RICE,

SUGAR CANE, CORN, ETC.

9


History of htu

HISTORY OF HTU

1982 - 1988Process R&D, Shell Laboratory, Amsterdam

1994 - 1997Technical-Economic evaluation of HTU technology

Nov 1997 - July 2000:

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT EET-1


What is htu

WHAT IS HTU ?

o

Conditions: 300 - 350 C; 120 - 180 bar

reaction time 5 - 20 minutes

liquid water present

Feedstocks:All types of biomass, domestic, agricultural and industrial residues, wood

Also wet feedstocks, no drying required

Chemistry:Oxygen removed as Carbon Dioxide

Products 45 Biocrude(%w on feedstock, dry basis)

25 Gas (> 90% CO2)

20 H2O

10 dissolved organics (e.g., acetic acid, methanol)

Thermal efficiency: 70 - 90 %


Htu product

HTU Product

BiocrudeHeavy organic liquid

Not miscible with water

Oxygen content 10 - 18 %w

LHV 30 -35 MJ/kg

Applications

Biocrude as such: (co)combustion in coal- and oil- fired power stations

After upgrading (hydrogenation): premium diesel fuel; kerosene

luboil base stock

chemicals feedstock (cracker)


Htu product flexibility

HTU PRODUCT FLEXIBILITY

  • Direct combustion as a liquid

  • (replacement of fossil fuels)

  • Combustion as a solid fuel

  • (cofiring with coal)

  • Emulsified fuel (type “Orimulsion”)

  • Replacement of charcoal

  • Upgraded product


Htu process block scheme

HTU PROCESS BLOCK SCHEME

air

Flue gas

Cat. DeNOx

External

Fuel

Furnace

Gas turbine, CC

electr.

Feedstock

Gas

Light biocrude

Pretreat-

ment

Pump

system

HEATING

SECTION

HTU

REACTOR

PRODUCT

SEPARATION

To Upgrading

(HDO)

Hvy biocrude

Waste

water

power station

electr.

Anaerobic

digestion

Biogas

CHP

electr., heat

electricity

concentrated

minerals sol’n

demineral.

Clean

water


Block scheme of htu pilot plant

Block scheme of HTU pilot pant

Block scheme of HTU pilot plant

Biomass

10-20 kg/hr (db)

CO2

330 °C

180 bar

Condensor

Gas /liquid

separator

gases

Preheater/Reactor 1

Reactor 2

Cooler

High pressure pump

1 bar

biocrude/water collection

Pressure reducer

Cooler

storage

storage


Thermal efficiency

THERMAL EFFICIENCY

Definition:

th = (LHV of biocrude output) * 100 %

(LHV of feed) + (LHV from external fuel)

For present process design:

th = 55.62 * 100% = 74.9 %

72.98 + 1.3

(Theoretical maximum for this case is 78.6 %)


Upgrading of biocrude by hdo

Upgrading of biocrude by HDO

  • Principle of catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation has been

  • demonstrated

  • Upgrading cost compensated by higher product value

  • Diesel fraction has excellent ignition properties

  • Potential applications:

    • Transport fuel

    • Kerosine

    • Fuel in high-efficient gas turbine

    • Feedstock for chemicals (via ethylene cracker)

    • Etc. etc.


Hdo process scheme

HDO process scheme

NH3, H2S

H2O

To refininery

pool

Recycle gas

compressor

C1-C4 gas

Hydrogen

Naphtha

HDO

reactor

system

Air transport

Kerosine

Separator

section

Fractionator

Biocrude

(fromHTU)

Diesel fuel for

Road transport

Gas oil

electricity

>370oC

residue

Lubricating oil;

chemical feedstock


Cost of biocrude and cost of avoiding one ton of co2 effect of feedstock price

8

rest products

energy farming

7

+ 60

6

+ 40

Biocrude cost, $/GJ

5

First Plant

+ 20

Future plant

4

$ per ton CO2 avoided

3

0

Coal (2 $/GJ) / Crude Oil (12 $/bbl) Replacement

2

- 20

1

0

-1

0

1

2

3

Feedstock price, $/GJ

COST OF BIOCRUDE AND COST OF AVOIDING ONE TON OF CO2 ; EFFECT OF FEEDSTOCK PRICE


Production of transportation fuel cost of htu plus hydrodeoxygenation

Total Product Cost, $/GJ

10

rest products

energy farming

8

First Plant

6

Premium Diesel ex crude oil of 25 $/bbl

4

Future plant

2

0

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

Biomass HTU Feedstock Price, $/GJ

PRODUCTION OF TRANSPORTATION FUELCost of HTU plus HydroDeOxygenation


Htu r d program

HTU R&D PROGRAM

  • GO / NO GO ITEMS

    • Pressurizing

    • Continuous integrated operation of pilot plant

  • CRITICAL ITEMS

    • Heating - up

    • Oil/water separation

    • Product properties / applications

    • Effluent treatment

  • DATA FOR DESIGN

    • Phase equilibria

    • Physical properties, esp. at reactor/separator conditions


Process development

Process Development

  • Work in autoclaves,

    • 10 ml, 1 liter, 2 liter

    • Testing of feedstocks and process conditions

  • Continuous pilot plant

    • capacity 20 kg/hour (dry basis)

    • commissioning 1 July 1999

    • first product prepared: 24 November 1999


D evelopment project eet 1

Development project EET-1

  • Mission:Design data for demonstration plant,

  • validated in continuous pilot plant

  • Time period:1 November 1997 - 31 July 2000

  • Cost and funding:

    • Subsidy3 M $

    • (Dutch Min. of Economic Affairs, EET programme)

    • Stork E&C (Now Jacobs)1

    • Shell Nederland1

    • TNO, BTG, Biofuel1

    • Total 6 M $


Project activities

PROJECT ACTIVITIES

PROJECT ACTIVITIES

1. Autoclave experiments-TNO

2. Reactor Engineering-BTG

3. Waste water treatment-TNO

4. Process Modeling-TNO (Tech Univ Delft)

5. Feedstock characterisation-BTG

6. Feed introduction equipment -Biofuel

7. Pilot plant design & contruction-TNO (Contractor)

8. Pilot plant operation-TNO

9. Product research-BTG

10. Materials selection- Biofuel (Contractor)

11. Commercial design & cost-Jacobs Engineering Nederland

12. Operational project support-Biofuel

13. Business development- Biofuel

14. Chemical analyses-TNO

15. Project management & coordination - Biofuel


Process design case study

PROCESS DESIGN CASE STUDY

Basic process design by Jacobs Engineering Nederland

Process scheme, Mass & Heat Balances: ASPEN PLUS flowsheeter

All disciplines involved, incl. layout

Case study:

Feedstock:Sugar beet pulp, 22 %w dry matter

Intake Capacity:130,000 tonnes/year (dry basis)

Focus on heat integration, thermal efficiency


Results of eet 1 project

RESULTS OF EET-1 PROJECT

  • Pilot plant construction completed

  • Pilot plant operation: - process principles verified

  • - most initial problems solved

  • - 200 kg biocrude produced

  • Pressurizing of feedstock successfully proven with commercial prototype pump

  • Data on thermodynamics and phase equilibria obtained; model operational

  • Waste water treatment routes defined

  • Product: various applications explored

  • Process design and cost estimation completed

  • Fundamental research to start: NWO – Japan project.


Eet 2 project final process development

EET-2 PROJECT:FINAL PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

Mission: Extended operation of pilot plant with commercial feeds

Product application development

Time period:2002 – 2005

Cost and funding:

Subsidy:3.6 MFl

Dutch Government, EET programme

TNO + BTG + Biofuel:1.2

St. Shell Research0.5

To be decided1.9

Total project cost7.2 MFl


Commercial htu demonstration plant 1

COMMERCIAL HTU DEMONSTRATION PLANT (1)

Study by Jacobs Engineering Nederland, 2000

Location:Large Waste Processing Company, The Netherlands

Feedstock: Organic Wet Fraction (ONF) of domestic waste

Capacity:81,300 tonnes of ONF per year

62,500 tonnes of washed ONF+ per year

(= 25,000 tonnes per year dry basis)

Production:14,470 t/yr Biocrude (incl ash) = 10,630 t/yr DAF

Combustion in power plant gives 5.5 MWe


Commercial htu demonstration plant 2

COMMERCIAL HTU DEMONSTRATION PLANT (2)

BASIS for ECONOMICS

Capital:Washing plant13 M Nfl

HTU plant37

Total capital50 M Nfl

Availability: year 1: 40 % (of 8000 h/yr)

year 2: 60 %

year 3: 80 %

years 4-15: 100 %

Maintenance and overhead: 4% and 1% of capital/yr

Operation:Worst case


Commercial htu demonstration plant 3

COMMERCIAL HTU DEMONSTRATION PLANT (3)

Total capital required50 M Nfl

CO2 reduction plan:minus 7.5 M Nfl

EWAB:minus 3.0

Net capital:39.5 M Nfl

Effect of VAMIL minus 13.8 M Nfl

Effect of EIA minus 5.5 M Nfl

Net Investment20.2 M Nfl

TOK: Loan of 20.2 Mfl @ 7% interest, repayment in 10 years


Commercial htu demonstration plant 4

COMMERCIAL HTU DEMONSTRATION PLANT (4)

NPV, M Nfl

License fee(p.m.)

TOK (techn ontwikkelings krediet)(21.6)over first 10 years

Operating cost washing plant(24.8)

Operating cost HTU plant(30.2)

Biocrude sales10.475% of equiv. coal price

Fee for ONF80.7 (= 100 Nfl/ton ONF)

Total project NPV14.5 NPV=0 if ONF fee= 77 Nfl/ton

Effect of REB buy-back32.2

NPV incl REB 46.7 NPV=0 if ONF fee= 39 Nfl/ton

NPV = Net present value of project over 15 years, discounted

cash flow with 7% interest rate


Technology development path s curve

Technology Development Path( S - curve)

Fully

Commercial

Commercial

Prototype

Next S- curve

Process

Development

Improved

scientific base

Techn./Econ.

Feasibility

Process

Scouting

Scientific Base

/ Explanatory


Next s curve

NEXT S - CURVE

  • Focussed fundamental studies on principles

    • Chemical and physical characteristics of biomass feedstocks in relation to hydrothermal conversion

    • (Wageningen Agricultural University)

    • Organic chenmistry: Reaction paths and kinetics with representative components and conditions

    • (Delft University of Technology)

    • Reaction engineering models/ complex kinetics

    • (Twente University)

    • Thermodynamics

    • (Delft University of Technology)


Htu related work in japan

HTU-related work in Japan

NIRE:Dr. Shin-ya Yokoyama

Ms. Dr. Tomoko Ogi

Publications since 1985

Upgrading of biomass residues and sewage sludge

For sewage sludge: continuous bench scale unit, 15 kg/h, ca. 1988

process development unit, 5 tons/day

Cooperation with:

Japan Organo Co., Ltd,

Dr. Akira Suzuki; contacts since 1991

Ebara corp.

Institute for cellulose Industry, Bandung Indonesia, publication 1998


Nwo japan project

NWO – Japan Project

NWO = Dutch Government Agency for Fundamental Scientific Research

Commemoration of 400 years contacts Japan – the Netherlands

Multimillion Treaty on fundamental research on renewable energy.

Netherlands: 4 out of 20 projects are on HTU fundamentals

Japan: Involvement of NIRE


Availability of organic residues in the netherlands

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

AVAILABILITY OF ORGANIC RESIDUES IN THE NETHERLANDS

Cumulative

kton/year (db)

Gasification,

Pyrolysis

HTU

energy farming

(NL)

straw

potato leaves

beet leaves

wood cuttings

verge grass

houshold waste

food ind. waste

wood waste

0

Price ( $/GJ )


Htu opportunities 1 the netherlands

HTU OPPORTUNITIES 1 - The Netherlands

  • Industrial organic waste and residues1.8 Million tons/a (db)

  • Organic household waste1.1,,

  • Poultry litter0.5,,

  • Manure 2.0,,

  • (combination with anaerobic digestion)

  • TOTAL5.4 Million tons/a (db)


Htu opportunities 2 europe

HTU OPPORTUNITIES 2 - Europe

  • Agricultural / Industrial Residues200 Million tons/a (db)

  • (Source: Eurec agency, 1996)

  • Short-term niches for HTU:

  • - Olive Oil Industry3 - 5 Million tons/a (db)

  • - Organic household waste26ktons/a (db) per

  • (from centralized waste separation) 250,000 inhabitants

  • - Residues from sugar and beer production.


Htu opportunities 3 world

HTU OPPORTUNITIES 3 - World

  • Agricultural and industrial residues4,000 Million tons/a (db)

  • (Source: “Renewable Energy; sources for (approx. 70 EJ/a)

  • fuels and electricity”, 1993)

  • Future organic household waste 800 Million tons/a (db)

  • (own tentative estimate)

  • Short-term niches for HTU:

  • - Organic household waste

  • - Bagasse (> 100 Mtons/a)

  • - Forestry residues from existing plantations

  • - Coir dust


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