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第二章 水准测量 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第二章 水准测量.  水准测量原理.  水准测量的仪器和工具.  水准仪的使用.  水准测量的外业.  水准测量的内业.  微倾式水准仪的检验与校正.  水准测量误差分析及注意事项.  三、四等水准测量的方法和要求. §2.1 水准测量原理. 水准测量: 利用能提供水平视线的仪器,测定地面点间的高差, 推算未知点高程的一种方法。. 前进方向. 前视尺. 后视尺. 水平视线. b. 前视读数. 前视点. a. 后视读数. B. h AB. 后视点.

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第二章 水准测量

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6428512


6428512

2.1

b

a

B

hAB

A

HB

HA

hA B = a - b

AB =-

HA HB

HB= HA+ hA B

: HB= HA+a b = H i b


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2.2


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Dini

DZS3-1


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DS3


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:

DS0.5DS1DS3DS10

DS

0513

DS3S3


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DS3


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DS3

1

C

C


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(CC)

:


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(2)

V=/

DS328

DS3130


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2

1

7~20m


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LL

2 mm

2 mm

Rmm=206265


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RDS320/2mm

DS3


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2

L

L

L


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LL

=8


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V

3

VV

V


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4.687 4.787


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2.3

1


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2:


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3:


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4

1.500


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2.4

1

Bench MarkBM


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BMA

BMA

1

BMA

2

1

1

2

n

n

2

BMB

2


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B

TP2

TP3

TP1

A

AB1 2 3Turning PointTP


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b2

a2

1.672

1.360

a4

1.754

1.396

b4

a3

1.029

1.472

1.852

0.658

b3

a1

b1

2

TP1

B

TP2

1

4

A

3

TP3

m

m

m

+

1

A

1.852

1.194

TP1

0.658

2

TP1

1.672

0.312

TP2

1.360

3

TP2

1.029

0.443

TP3

1.472

4

TP3

1.754

0.358

B

1.396

a = 6.307 b = 4.886 h = +1.421

a b = 6.307 4.886 = +1.421 = h

m

m

m

+

1

A

1.852

1.194

TP1

0.658

2

TP1

1.672

0.312

TP2

1.360

3

TP2

1.029

0.443

TP3

1.472

4

TP3

1.754

0.358

B

1.396

a = 6.307 b = 4.886 h = +1.421

a b = 6.307 4.886 = +1.421 = h


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1.


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2

5 mm


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BMA

BMB

2

1

3

h1

h2

h3

ABh = HB HA

AB h= h1+ h2+ h3

fh =h h

f = 12 mm


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BMA

1

3

2

h1

h4

h2

h =0 h= HA-HA

h3

h=h1+ h2+ h3 +h4

fh =hh =h

f= 12 mm


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1

BMA

2

h

h

fh =h +h

f= 12 mm

n


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2.5

2. f=hih

  • f=12 mm

4. vi= -f/ ni

5. HiHi1hi

hi=hivi


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f=

f= 88 mm

f= 47 mm


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2.6

1. (VV) :

2. (LL ) :

3. LL:

4. CC):


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1. LLVV

2.

3. LLCC


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1

1

180

180


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2

L

V

2

L

V

2

180LL 2


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(3)


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.


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2.

(1)

20m,


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(2)

  • ,


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a1

b1

i

i

B

A

3 .

(1)

80mABhAB 3mmhAB


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a2

b2

a0

B

A

AB23 ABa2b2a2b2


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2

ABBBb2BAa0

a0 = hAB+ b2

A

a0= a2 LLCC

a0 a2LLCC


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a2

b2

a0

a1

b1

i

i

B

A

i

i20


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3

A a0

AB


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i20


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2.7

1


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2

1

V

60

D


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2

3

0.15

4

5


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1


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2

3


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r


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2.8


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04.687m4.787m


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(m)

(mm)

(m)

(m)

(mm)

(mm) (km) (mm) (mm)

6 45 DS3 12R 12L

10 15 DS3 20R 20L

65 3 6 2 3

80 5 10 3 5

RLkm


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1

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


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K1=4.687 K2=4.787


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2

  • 1 D100m

  • 2 DDD 5.0m

  • 3 D 10.0m

  • 4

  • 46873mm47873mm

  • 5

  • 46873mm47873mm


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  • 1()()h1

  • 2 ()()h2

3 :h1- h2 5mm 100 mm

4: h(h1 +h20.1m)/2


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3

K1=4.687 K2=4.787

(3) = 1.983 (8) = 11.459

(6) = 2.307 (7) = 11.782

(16) = -0.324 (17) = -0.323

(9) = 155.4 (10) = 154.4

= 309.8

(18) = -0.3235


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4

1 :

2

3

(+)

0.100


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5

f= 20 mm

L

  • 6

7


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