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第二章 水准测量 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第二章 水准测量.  水准测量原理.  水准测量的仪器和工具.  水准仪的使用.  水准测量的外业.  水准测量的内业.  微倾式水准仪的检验与校正.  水准测量误差分析及注意事项.  三、四等水准测量的方法和要求. §2.1 水准测量原理. 水准测量: 利用能提供水平视线的仪器,测定地面点间的高差, 推算未知点高程的一种方法。. 前进方向. 前视尺. 后视尺. 水平视线. b. 前视读数. 前视点. a. 后视读数. B. h AB. 后视点.

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第二章 水准测量

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2.1

b

a

B

hAB

A

HB

HA

hA B = a - b

AB =-

HA HB

HB= HA+ hA B

: HB= HA+a b = H i b


2.2


Dini

DZS3-1


DS3


:

DS0.5DS1DS3DS10

DS

0513

DS3S3


DS3


DS3

1

C

C


(CC)

:


(2)

V=/

DS328

DS3130


2

1

7~20m


LL

2 mm

2 mm

Rmm=206265


RDS320/2mm

DS3


2

L

L

L


LL

=8


V

3

VV

V


4.687 4.787



2.3

1


2:


3:


4

1.500


2.4

1

Bench MarkBM


BMA

BMA

1

BMA

2

1

1

2

n

n

2

BMB

2


B

TP2

TP3

TP1

A

AB1 2 3Turning PointTP


b2

a2

1.672

1.360

a4

1.754

1.396

b4

a3

1.029

1.472

1.852

0.658

b3

a1

b1

2

TP1

B

TP2

1

4

A

3

TP3

m

m

m

+

1

A

1.852

1.194

TP1

0.658

2

TP1

1.672

0.312

TP2

1.360

3

TP2

1.029

0.443

TP3

1.472

4

TP3

1.754

0.358

B

1.396

a = 6.307 b = 4.886 h = +1.421

a b = 6.307 4.886 = +1.421 = h

m

m

m

+

1

A

1.852

1.194

TP1

0.658

2

TP1

1.672

0.312

TP2

1.360

3

TP2

1.029

0.443

TP3

1.472

4

TP3

1.754

0.358

B

1.396

a = 6.307 b = 4.886 h = +1.421

a b = 6.307 4.886 = +1.421 = h


1.


2

5 mm


BMA

BMB

2

1

3

h1

h2

h3

ABh = HB HA

AB h= h1+ h2+ h3

fh =h h

f = 12 mm


BMA

1

3

2

h1

h4

h2

h =0 h= HA-HA

h3

h=h1+ h2+ h3 +h4

fh =hh =h

f= 12 mm


1

BMA

2

h

h

fh =h +h

f= 12 mm

n


2.5

2. f=hih

  • f=12 mm

4. vi= -f/ ni

5. HiHi1hi

hi=hivi


f=

f= 88 mm

f= 47 mm


2.6

1. (VV) :

2. (LL ) :

3. LL:

4. CC):


1. LLVV

2.

3. LLCC


1

1

180

180


2

L

V

2

L

V

2

180LL 2


(3)


.


2.

(1)

20m,


(2)

  • ,


a1

b1

i

i

B

A

3 .

(1)

80mABhAB 3mmhAB


a2

b2

a0

B

A

AB23 ABa2b2a2b2


2

ABBBb2BAa0

a0 = hAB+ b2

A

a0= a2 LLCC

a0 a2LLCC


a2

b2

a0

a1

b1

i

i

B

A

i

i20


3

A a0

AB


i20


2.7

1


2

1

V

60

D


2

3

0.15

4

5


1


2

3



r


2.8


04.687m4.787m


(m)

(mm)

(m)

(m)

(mm)

(mm) (km) (mm) (mm)

6 45 DS3 12R 12L

10 15 DS3 20R 20L

65 3 6 2 3

80 5 10 3 5

RLkm


1

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


K1=4.687 K2=4.787


2

  • 1 D100m

  • 2 DDD 5.0m

  • 3 D 10.0m

  • 4

  • 46873mm47873mm

  • 5

  • 46873mm47873mm


  • 1()()h1

  • 2 ()()h2

3 :h1- h2 5mm 100 mm

4: h(h1 +h20.1m)/2


3

K1=4.687 K2=4.787

(3) = 1.983 (8) = 11.459

(6) = 2.307 (7) = 11.782

(16) = -0.324 (17) = -0.323

(9) = 155.4 (10) = 154.4

= 309.8

(18) = -0.3235


4

1 :

2

3

(+)

0.100


5

f= 20 mm

L

  • 6

7


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