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THE HALOGEN FAMILY. FLUORINE. Moissan, a French chemist isolated iodine by the electrolysis of HI and molten potassium hydrogen fluoride Gore prepared it by heating potassium fluoroplumbate It has been used as a flux, where

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  • Moissan, a French chemist isolated iodine by the electrolysis of HI and

    molten potassium hydrogen fluoride

  • Gore prepared it by heating potassium fluoroplumbate

  • It has been used as a flux, where

    the name fluorine from Latin “fluo” which means “to flow” was taken

  • The 17th plentiful element on earth


  • The bones and enamel of teeth of mammals contain small amounts of calcium fluride

  • A pale yellow gas having an odor

    that of the mixture of ozone and chlorine

  • It is the most active element known

  • Fluorine may be placed in glass or quartz vessels for short periods


Pharmacologic Action:

  • Gaseous fluorine is irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membrane

  • The fluoride ion is germicidal, prevents growth of bacteria, molds and preserves blood specimen


    1. Freon 12, CF2Cl2 - as refrigerant

    2. Teflon, CF2CF2 – containers for HI


3. Cryolite, Na2AlF6 - insecticide

4. DFT, di-isopropyl fluorophosphate –

for the reduction of intraocular

tension in glaucoma

5. Sodium fluorosilicate – antimoth


6. Sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate – prevent dental caries


  • The name was from the Greek word chloros meaning ”greenish yellow”

  • Scheele named it ”depflogisticated muriatic acid”

  • Berthollet named it “oxygenized muriatic acid”

  • Davy gave the nams Chlorine

  • It is never found in nature but in combination with the alkali metals


  • The blood contains about 0.25% Cl-1

  • Sea water is about 2.07% combined


  • Volcanic gases contain HCl

  • It is greenish-yellow, unpleasant-suffocating odor and astringent taste

  • Most active of the halogens with HCs to form chlorinated compound


  • Chlorine Water(Aqua Clori) – a sat sol’n of chlorine in distilled water is official in USP, has yellow color and diappears on standing

  • The oxidizing and bleaching properties are due to the oxygen evolved in the breakdown of HClO

  • Chlorine water should be kept in a dark place or in light-resistant jars


Pharmacologic Action:

1. Irritant to the mucous membranes and respiratory tract

2. Overexposure to the gas causes restlessness, sneezing and excessive salivation

3. Death occurs by asphyxiation when symptoms increase accompanied by vomiting


4. Liquid Cl2 will cause blistering of skin. Persons with asthma or chronic bronchitis are bothered by Cl2


1. Cl2 as the pure element has little use in medicine

2. To purify drinking water

3. Prevent putrefaction and remove the odor or decay


4. Manufac explosives, insecticides, herbicides, organic chemicals and as refrigerants

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)

1. As bactericide but not economical to sterilize drinking water

2. For bleaching flour, fats, oil, paper,


3. Destroy unpleasant taste and odor


  • Balard discovered and named bromine from the Greek word meaning “a stench” because of its pungent smell

  • Occurs in combination with various metals in sea water, Dead sea, carnallite deposits and brine

  • It is a dark reddish- brown mobile liquid almost black


  • Freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, carbon disulfide and acetic acid

  • Solubility in water may be incresed by the use of KBr

  • Stored in glass vessels or glass lined metal drums

  • A yellow color will produce with starch


Pharmacologic action

1. Irritant poison and a powerful

escharotic, rarely used in med

2. Liquid bromine quickly attacks

the skin/tissues produce burns slow

to heal

In handling bromine, it is always

advisable to have ammonia water to

stop its action


  • Relief from inhaled bromine is by

    breathing ammonia vapors then O2y

  • Br2 is cooling on the skin, (just all

    volatile liquids) follwed by brown

    stain and burn

  • Br2 is used in making bromides for

    med purposes, analytical chemistry,

    photography, prep of organic dyes


  • Curtois, a salt manufacturer in

    Paris, accidentally discovered the

    element from burnt seaweeds which

    gave violet fumes

  • Gay-Lussac named the subs Iode

  • Curtois received a prize from the

    Royal Society for having improved

    the art of healing for the value of

    Iodine in treating goiter


  • The ashes obtained from burning of sea weeds is known as kelp in Scotland, in Norway as varec, barilla in Spain

  • Occurs in thyroid gland of animals

  • Is a grayish-black solid, metallic luster, a penetrating odor

  • One of the heaviest gases


Pharmacologic action:

1. I2 is converted to inorganic iodide

in the GIT

2. Dr. Jean Coindet successfully used I2 as cure for goiter

3. Acts by oxidizing and/or iodizing the protoplasm of the cell

- use as germicide, fungicide, amebicide, virucide


  • In Pharmacy, I2 preparations are used externally as antiseptic or internally as a source of iodine

    Important Compounds:

    1. Iodine USP

    - used in medicine as counterirritant

    and disinfectant

    2. Lugol’s sol’n (Strong Iodine Sol’n)

    source of I2 for internal use


  • It is the only official preparation containing elemental iodine

  • It is marketed under the ff prep:

    a. Iodine Tincture

    b. Iodine Ampuls

    c. Iodine Ointment

    d. Iodine solution

    e. Phenolated Iodine Solution

    (Boulton’s Solution)


f. Strong Iodine Tincture –has

antifungal properties

  • I2 sol’n and I2 tinc employ the same conc of active ingredients but differ in the solvent medium

  • I2 sol’n is less irritating since it

    lacks alcohol but dries very slowly

  • I2 tinc is much less apt to freeze


Official compound

  • Povidove-Iodine- occurs as a yellowish brown amorphous powder

    - it is soluble in water and alcohol but insoluble CHCl3, CCl4 ether and alcohol

  • Betadine, Isodine,

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine complex


  • Advantages over elemental iodine:

    a. Reduced irritation to tissues

    b. Reduced oral toxicity

    c. Does not stain the skin or clothing

    d. Lower incidence if idiosyncracy

    Availlable prep accg to conc:

    a. Intraviginal applications- 1%

    douche or 0.1% gel


b.Topical preparations

0.5% aerosol spray,1.0% ointment,

0.75% shampoo, 0.75 % skin

cleanser, 1.0% sol’n and 0.75%


  • Non-official preparation:

    1. Diglycocoll Hydroiodide-Iodine



  • Used to disinfect drinking water

    - I2 is better than chlorine for purifying drinking water because it is not affected nitrogen contg cpmds

    2. Undecoylium Chloride Iodide

    (Virac) – useful in treating surface infections as well as pre and post operative disinfection

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