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THE HALOGEN FAMILY. FLUORINE. Moissan, a French chemist isolated iodine by the electrolysis of HI and molten potassium hydrogen fluoride Gore prepared it by heating potassium fluoroplumbate It has been used as a flux, where

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fluorine
FLUORINE
  • Moissan, a French chemist isolated iodine by the electrolysis of HI and

molten potassium hydrogen fluoride

  • Gore prepared it by heating potassium fluoroplumbate
  • It has been used as a flux, where

the name fluorine from Latin “fluo” which means “to flow” was taken

  • The 17th plentiful element on earth
fluorine1
FLUORINE
  • The bones and enamel of teeth of mammals contain small amounts of calcium fluride
  • A pale yellow gas having an odor

that of the mixture of ozone and chlorine

  • It is the most active element known
  • Fluorine may be placed in glass or quartz vessels for short periods
fluorine2
FLUORINE

Pharmacologic Action:

  • Gaseous fluorine is irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membrane
  • The fluoride ion is germicidal, prevents growth of bacteria, molds and preserves blood specimen

Uses:

1. Freon 12, CF2Cl2 - as refrigerant

2. Teflon, CF2CF2 – containers for HI

fluorine3
fluorine

3. Cryolite, Na2AlF6 - insecticide

4. DFT, di-isopropyl fluorophosphate –

for the reduction of intraocular

tension in glaucoma

5. Sodium fluorosilicate – antimoth

preparation

6. Sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate – prevent dental caries

chlorine
CHLORINE
  • The name was from the Greek word chloros meaning ”greenish yellow”
  • Scheele named it ”depflogisticated muriatic acid”
  • Berthollet named it “oxygenized muriatic acid”
  • Davy gave the nams Chlorine
  • It is never found in nature but in combination with the alkali metals
chlorine1
CHLORINE
  • The blood contains about 0.25% Cl-1
  • Sea water is about 2.07% combined

chlorine

  • Volcanic gases contain HCl
  • It is greenish-yellow, unpleasant-suffocating odor and astringent taste
  • Most active of the halogens with HCs to form chlorinated compound
chlorine2
CHLORINE
  • Chlorine Water(Aqua Clori) – a sat sol’n of chlorine in distilled water is official in USP, has yellow color and diappears on standing
  • The oxidizing and bleaching properties are due to the oxygen evolved in the breakdown of HClO
  • Chlorine water should be kept in a dark place or in light-resistant jars
chlorine3
CHLORINE

Pharmacologic Action:

1. Irritant to the mucous membranes and respiratory tract

2. Overexposure to the gas causes restlessness, sneezing and excessive salivation

3. Death occurs by asphyxiation when symptoms increase accompanied by vomiting

chlorine4
CHLORINE

4. Liquid Cl2 will cause blistering of skin. Persons with asthma or chronic bronchitis are bothered by Cl2

Uses:

1. Cl2 as the pure element has little use in medicine

2. To purify drinking water

3. Prevent putrefaction and remove the odor or decay

chlorine5
CHLORINE

4. Manufac explosives, insecticides, herbicides, organic chemicals and as refrigerants

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)

1. As bactericide but not economical to sterilize drinking water

2. For bleaching flour, fats, oil, paper,

textile

3. Destroy unpleasant taste and odor

bromine
bromine
  • Balard discovered and named bromine from the Greek word meaning “a stench” because of its pungent smell
  • Occurs in combination with various metals in sea water, Dead sea, carnallite deposits and brine
  • It is a dark reddish- brown mobile liquid almost black
bromine1
BROMINE
  • Freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, carbon disulfide and acetic acid
  • Solubility in water may be incresed by the use of KBr
  • Stored in glass vessels or glass lined metal drums
  • A yellow color will produce with starch
bromine2
BROMINE

Pharmacologic action

1. Irritant poison and a powerful

escharotic, rarely used in med

2. Liquid bromine quickly attacks

the skin/tissues produce burns slow

to heal

In handling bromine, it is always

advisable to have ammonia water to

stop its action

bromine3
BROMINE
  • Relief from inhaled bromine is by

breathing ammonia vapors then O2y

  • Br2 is cooling on the skin, (just all

volatile liquids) follwed by brown

stain and burn

  • Br2 is used in making bromides for

med purposes, analytical chemistry,

photography, prep of organic dyes

iodine
IODINE
  • Curtois, a salt manufacturer in

Paris, accidentally discovered the

element from burnt seaweeds which

gave violet fumes

  • Gay-Lussac named the subs Iode
  • Curtois received a prize from the

Royal Society for having improved

the art of healing for the value of

Iodine in treating goiter

iodine1
IODINE
  • The ashes obtained from burning of sea weeds is known as kelp in Scotland, in Norway as varec, barilla in Spain
  • Occurs in thyroid gland of animals
  • Is a grayish-black solid, metallic luster, a penetrating odor
  • One of the heaviest gases
iodine2
IODINE

Pharmacologic action:

1. I2 is converted to inorganic iodide

in the GIT

2. Dr. Jean Coindet successfully used I2 as cure for goiter

3. Acts by oxidizing and/or iodizing the protoplasm of the cell

- use as germicide, fungicide, amebicide, virucide

iodine3
IODINE
  • In Pharmacy, I2 preparations are used externally as antiseptic or internally as a source of iodine

Important Compounds:

1. Iodine USP

- used in medicine as counterirritant

and disinfectant

2. Lugol’s sol’n (Strong Iodine Sol’n)

source of I2 for internal use

iodine4
IODINE
  • It is the only official preparation containing elemental iodine
  • It is marketed under the ff prep:

a. Iodine Tincture

b. Iodine Ampuls

c. Iodine Ointment

d. Iodine solution

e. Phenolated Iodine Solution

(Boulton’s Solution)

iodine5
IODINE

f. Strong Iodine Tincture –has

antifungal properties

  • I2 sol’n and I2 tinc employ the same conc of active ingredients but differ in the solvent medium
  • I2 sol’n is less irritating since it

lacks alcohol but dries very slowly

  • I2 tinc is much less apt to freeze
iodine6
IODINE

Official compound

  • Povidove-Iodine- occurs as a yellowish brown amorphous powder

- it is soluble in water and alcohol but insoluble CHCl3, CCl4 ether and alcohol

  • Betadine, Isodine,

Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine complex

iodine7
IODINE
  • Advantages over elemental iodine:

a. Reduced irritation to tissues

b. Reduced oral toxicity

c. Does not stain the skin or clothing

d. Lower incidence if idiosyncracy

Availlable prep accg to conc:

a. Intraviginal applications- 1%

douche or 0.1% gel

iuodine
IUODINE

b.Topical preparations

0.5% aerosol spray,1.0% ointment,

0.75% shampoo, 0.75 % skin

cleanser, 1.0% sol’n and 0.75%

scrub

  • Non-official preparation:

1. Diglycocoll Hydroiodide-Iodine

(Bursoline)

iodine8
IODINE
  • Used to disinfect drinking water

- I2 is better than chlorine for purifying drinking water because it is not affected nitrogen contg cpmds

2. Undecoylium Chloride Iodide

(Virac) – useful in treating surface infections as well as pre and post operative disinfection

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