Student Motivation: How Much Can We Really Do

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What is motivation?. The word motive derives from the Latin movere, meaning to move". Movement . . . towards a positive future. What do we want to move" them to do?. Brainstorm. Motivation and a self regulated strategy, including self-efficacy and a learning goal orientation, are important

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Student Motivation: How Much Can We Really Do

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1. Student Motivation: How Much Can We Really Do? Jeffrey McClellan Utah Valley State College

2. What is motivation? The word motive derives from the Latin movere, meaning “to move”. Movement . . . towards a positive future

3. What do we want to “move” them to do? Brainstorm “Motivation and a self regulated strategy, including self-efficacy and a learning goal orientation, are important factors for both high and low achievers.” (Kramer, 2000, p. 86)

4. By the end of this presentation: Your students will listen to and do everything you tell them to do Your children will be perfect Everyone will do whatever you want them to do Your dog will smile

5. Motivation vs Manipulation About serving others Takes people as they are Based on time, effort, and sincerity Is hard About serving self Forces people to be what we want them to be Based on the use of techniques Is easy

6. Theories of Motivation Need based Maslow—Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow et al., 1998) McClelland—Acquired Needs Theory (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2001) William James—Deepest Needs (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2001) Reward based Herzberg—Hygiene and Motivation (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2001) Environment based ARCS (Keller & Suzuki, 1998) Behavioral theory Goal based Dweck & Leggett—Achievement goals Perception based Bandura--Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) Attribution theory (Hong, et. al., 1999) Frankl—Logotherapy (Frankl, 1984) Brain Based Neuroanatomy of motivation “cognition, control, fear, and pleasure” (zull, 51)

7. How—The reality Motivation is more complex Multiple variables/needs (Mintzberg, 1983)

8. Complexity Recognize that if they are talking to you the problem is more complex than they might even know Avoid the desire to provide oversimplified solutions

9. Internal Factors Needs Wants Interests Self-efficacy Actual abilities Mental Models Knowledge Beliefs Genetics/instinct

10. External Factors Relationships Finances Access to resources Rewards Consequences Social status Group memberships

11. Dynamic Equilibrium “The biggest player . . . standing in the way of an individuals chances to learn and grow [is] . . . dynamic equilibrium” (Kegan & Lahey, 2001, p. 5).

12. Dynamic equilibrium

13. Examples A student enters your office to choose a major, but is having difficulty deciding. You ask the student what she is considering and she says, “nursing.” What forces might be pushing her to pursue a major in nursing? What forces might be pushing her not to? What will happen as long as these forces remain equal?

14. Motivation Process Step 1: Listen, empathize, and explore

15. Questions: What benefit do you expect to gain from your action? What consequences do you think you are avoiding? How much effort do you think you will have to apply to achieve the benefit? Help them test their perceptions for accuracy. A powerful question: What is the most significant thing standing between you and your decision?

16. Outcome What happens when you explore these questions with the student?

17. Overcoming Dynamic Equilibrium (Concept adapted from Schein, 1992) Provide Psychological Safety (positive force + safety) Vision Information Appreciation Develop skills Assurance and provision of support Increasing Conflict (dissonance) Feedback Positive vision

19. Catalytic Moments Seven factors that contribute to mind change (Gardner, 2004) Reason Research Resonance Rewards and Resources Real world events Rediscriptions (viable alternate stories) Resistances

20. Tipping the scales “Mind changes are likely to occur when all seven factors pull in a ‘mind changing direction’—and are most unlikely to occur when all or most of these factors oppose the mind change” (Gardner, p. 66). A small shift can tip the balance

21. Awareness Awareness facilitates choice Without awareness, we simply respond The choice depends on the nature of the perceived forces acting upon the individual (French & Raven, 2005, p. 321)

23. Supporting the move Two types of support (Khoshaba & Maddi, 2005) Encouragement Assistance Avoid Autobiographical scripting or subtle competition (Covey, 1989; Khoshaba & Maddi, 2005) Overprotection (Khoshaba & Maddi, 2005)

25. How much can we do? Motivating others begins with empathic listening and active exploration and . . . moves through conflict and safety towards understanding and awareness, which . . . when supported by encouragement and assistance results in action towards a positive future The advisor can facilitate the process, but the impetus to move must come from within the student Thus our power is the power to kindle (motivate) but we should be careful not burn (manipulate)!

26. Edison, the boy, and the bulb Like Edison, [advisors] have the power to greatly influence lives, to make a difference. This is the power all [educators] possess -- the power to kindle the fire of creativity, and the power to extinguish it; the power to make [college] a safe, secure and friendly place, and the power to make it a nightmare; the power to develop in learners the attitudes of acceptance and appreciation of differences, and the power to reinforce existing stereotypes; the power to begin teaching persons from where they start and take them further, and the power to frustrate them and discourage them from learning. (Conceptual framework, 2003)

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