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Operational Amplifiers ME 6405, Fall ‘04 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Operational Amplifiers ME 6405, Fall ‘04. Martin Gudem Nurudeen Olayiwola Henry Won. Operational Amplifiers. Goals: Introduction Characteristics Types Models VS. reality. Introduction. Most transducers provide analog signals: Too small Too noisy. Wrong information DC offset.

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Operational Amplifiers ME 6405, Fall ‘04

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Operational amplifiers me 6405 fall 04 l.jpg

Operational AmplifiersME 6405, Fall ‘04

Martin Gudem

Nurudeen Olayiwola

Henry Won


Operational amplifiers l.jpg

Operational Amplifiers

Goals:

  • Introduction

  • Characteristics

  • Types

  • Models VS. reality


Introduction l.jpg

Introduction

Most transducers provide analog signals:

  • Too small

  • Too noisy

  • Wrong information

  • DC offset

Measurement system


Amplifiers l.jpg

Amplifiers

  • Ideally: Increase amplitude without affecting other properties of the signal

  • Voltage gain:

  • Impedances:


Terminology l.jpg

Terminology

Open loop

Closed loop  Stabilized signal


Ideal model l.jpg

Ideal Model

  • Aid in circuit analysis

  • I+ = I- = 0

  • V+ = V-

  • Zout = 0


Configuration l.jpg

Configuration

  • 741 General purpose amplifier

Pin-out


Internal design l.jpg

Internal design


The ideal op amp l.jpg

The Ideal Op-Amp

  • Infinite Input Resistance

  • Zero input current

  • Zero Output Resistance

  • Infinite Gain

  • Common Mode Voltage Gain Zero

  • Zero Noise / Zero Output Allowed

  • Unlimited Bandwith

  • Temperature Independent


Ideal v real op amps l.jpg

Ideal v. Real Op-Amps

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electronic/opampcon.html#c1


Op amps for math l.jpg

Op-Amps for Math

  • Inverting

  • Non-Inverting

  • Summing

  • Differencing

  • Integrating

  • Differentiating


Inverting l.jpg

Inverting

“An Application Guide for Op-Amps”, National Semi-Conductor, Application Note 20, February 1969.


Non inverting l.jpg

Non - Inverting

“An Application Guide for Op-Amps”, National Semi-Conductor, Application Note 20, February 1969.


Summing op amp l.jpg

Summing Op-Amp

“An Application Guide for Op-Amps”, National Semi-Conductor, Application Note 20, February 1969.


Differencing op amp l.jpg

Differencing Op-Amp

“An Application Guide for Op-Amps”, National Semi-Conductor, Application Note 20, February 1969.


Integrating op amp l.jpg

Integrating Op-Amp

“An Application Guide for Op-Amps”, National Semi-Conductor, Application Note 20, February 1969.


Differentiating op amp l.jpg

Differentiating Op-Amp

“An Application Guide for Op-Amps”, National Semi-Conductor, Application Note 20, February 1969.


Use of an op amp l.jpg

Use of an Op amp

  • Filters:

    3 types

  • Low Pass Filter (LPF)

    • Used to filter higher freq.

  • High Pass Filter (HPF)

    • used to filter low freq.

  • Band Pass Filter (BPF)

    -a combination of LPF and HPF


Contd l.jpg

Contd.

  • Dual input (dual source – and + with respect to ground),

    • Used in audio equip. control circuits, medical equipment, etc.

  • Single input


Order of filters l.jpg

Order of filters

  • First order

  • Second order

    Our examples show second order

    Filters.

    - What was the order of the filter we used in lab?


Slide21 l.jpg

LPF

This filter is used to remove noise signals that are above the specified frequency.

The frequency range is

given by the equation below

Where f=freq.

R=R2

C=C1


Slide22 l.jpg

HPF

HPF is used to remove all freq.

Below the specified freq. and it is

Created by reversing the position

of the capacitor and resistor

In a LPF


Slide23 l.jpg

BPF

This is a combination of the LPF and HPF. It allows for freq. within the range

for the LPF and HPF.


Instrumentation op amp l.jpg

Instrumentation OP Amp

This is used in

Situations where

output voltage

needs to varied.


Analysis of instrumentation op amp l.jpg

Analysis of instrumentation op amp

  • Vo = Vo1 – Vo2

  • Vo1=V1+VR

  • Vo2 =V2 – VR

  • VR = (V1-V2)R/RA

  • Vo= V1-V2+2VR =(V1-V2)(1+2R/RA)


The use of filters l.jpg

The use of filters

  • Communications

  • Removing noise from a power input

  • Radio communications

  • Infrared/ LED signals transm.

  • Etc


Conclusions l.jpg

Conclusions

  • One major disadvantage

    • Distortion when dealing with really low freq. ranges


Conclusions contd l.jpg

Conclusions contd.

  • Advantages

    • Useable in different industries

    • Signal and power amplification

    • Simple

    • Cheap and easy to build

    • Makes life easier

    • Math operations


References l.jpg

References

  • www.electronics-tutorials.com

  • www.play-hookey.com

  • Alcitore, Histand Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems


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