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KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy. The cells of all organisms—from algae to whales to people—need chemical energy for all of their processes . Some organisms, such as diatoms and plants, absorb energy from sunlight. What is a diatom? What do they do with it?

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KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.

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KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.


  • The cells of all organisms—from algae to whales to people—need chemical energy for all of their processes.

  • Some organisms, such as diatoms and plants, absorb energy from sunlight. What is a diatom?

    • What do they do with it?

      • Some of that energy is stored in sugars.

      • Cellsbreak down sugars to produce usable chemical energy for their functions.

  • Without organisms that make sugars, living things on Earth could not survive.


MAIN IDEA: The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATP.

You are hungry. You need energy, so you grab what? A Snickers Bar? A Kit-Kat Bar?

Does this food that contains sugar and other Carbon-based molecules give you the energy that you need? How does it provide it to you, exactly?

All carbon-based molecules store chemical energy in their bonds!


Starch molecule

Glucose molecule

  • Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds.

  • What is a glucose molecule?

A six-carbon sugar

made by plants during photosynthesis.

Used for energy!


What is ATP?Adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes.

  • ATP carries chemical energy that cells can use.

  • Cells use ATP to carry out functions:

    • building molecules

    • moving materials by active transport.


phosphate removed

How does ATP transfer energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions?

  • ATP has three phosphate groups, but the third has a unstable, weak bond.

  • Energy is released when the third phosphate group is removed.

  • ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added.

ADP is a lower-energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group.


phosphate removed

Where are molecules from food involved in the cycle?

Food molecules are supplying the energy to ADD a phosphate group to ADP, converting it once again to ATP!


Describe the relationship between energy stored in food and ATP.

  • Food molecules store chemical energy in their bonds.

  • Food is broken down into smaller molecules that are broken down further to transfer this energy to ATP.


Let’s Compare ATP and ADP!


Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP.

  • Food does not contain readily useable ADP that our cells can use.

  • Food has to be eaten and digested first (making smaller molecules)

  • Different foods contain different amounts of calories, which is a measure of energy. Calories and ATP are related.

  • Different foods contain different amounts of ATP.

  • The number of ATP molecules produced depends on the type of molecule that is broken down

    • Carbohydrate

    • Lipid

    • Protein


Fill in the Details Section in the table on your Power Notes!

Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP.

  • not stored in large amounts in our bodies

  • you can get up to 36 ATP molecules from one glucose molecule


  • Lipids or Fats store the most energy and provide the most ATP when broken down.

  • Store 80 percent of the energy in your body

  • Obtain about 146 ATP molecules from a triglyceride

  • Proteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP.

  • amino acids not usually needed for energy, but for making new proteins!

  • store about the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate


What about plants?More on them later…………….

  • Compare and Contrast:How do lipids and carbohydrates differ in ATP production?

  • Lipids provide more ATP than carbohydrates do.

  • Carbohydrates produce about 36, and lipids produce about 146.


A few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy.

  • Some organisms live in places that never get sunlight (hydrothermal vents)

  • These vents release chemical compounds

  • In chemosynthesis, organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy-storing carbon-based molecules.

  • Process is

    • similar to photosynthesis

    • uses chemical energy instead of light energy


How are chemosynthetic organisms and plants similar as energy sources?

  • Both chemosynthetic organisms and plants make their own food and both are eaten by other organisms that cannot make their own food.


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