Chapter 7  Byzantium

Chapter 7 Byzantium PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Founded by Justinian in the near eastBuilt a monastery fortress at the foot of Mount Sinai and pilgrimage chapels on the slopesBecause of several factors (extreme isolation and very dry weather) the monastery is an immense repository of ancient Byzantine art and cultureFamous as the site of the rediscovery of the earliest Greek codex of the New TestamentCodex Sinaiticus discovered by German scholar Konstantin von Tischendorf in late 19th centuryNow located in British museum.

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Chapter 7 Byzantium

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2. Founded by Justinian in the near east Built a monastery fortress at the foot of Mount Sinai and pilgrimage chapels on the slopes Because of several factors (extreme isolation and very dry weather) the monastery is an immense repository of ancient Byzantine art and culture Famous as the site of the rediscovery of the earliest Greek codex of the New Testament Codex Sinaiticus discovered by German scholar Konstantin von Tischendorf in late 19th century Now located in British museum

3. Surrounded by heavy, fortified walls There are some modern building within including a fireproof structure that houses the library and icon collections The monastic church, the Katholikon, dates back to time of Justinian One of the more spectacular holdings of the monastery is the vast collections of religious icons Because of the iconoclastic controversies of the 8th and 9th centuries in the Byzantine Empire, almost no pictorial art remains from before the 8th century.

4. In Byzantine Christian tradition, icon refers to a painting of a religious figure or a religious scene used in the public worship (liturgy) Icons aren’t primarily decorative The iconic style becomes clear by an exam of an icon of Christ that may have been sent to his new monastery by Justinian himself Icon is done using the encaustic method of painting (a technique common in the roman world for funerary portraits): painting with molten wax that has been colored

5. Although Byzantine art has undergone regional, intellectual, social and iconographic changes, a person who visits a modern Greek or Russian Orthodox church may be struck by the similarities rather than the differences Byzantine style can be found as far south as Sicily and in the far eastern reaches of Russia Until the fall of Constantinople in 1453, it was a huge cultural influence to the eastern Christian world

6. Arians- a dissident branch of early Christianity, which did not accept Jesus Christ as equal to the father; name for the Alexandrian priest Arius Codex- Book with bound pages of parchment used instead of scrolls Iconoclasm- literally “image breaking”- movement in Christian east that militated against the use of icons in worship and devotion Liturgy- the official public worship of the Christian church Orthodoxy- Greek term meaning both correct belief and correct worship. Later became the generic name for Eastern Christianity which broke from Rome Sarcophagus- Large Coffins, usually carved from limestone used to bury bodies. The word literally means flesh eaters Studium/Studia- An ancient name for the place where a community of scholars taught and wrote Votive Chapel- a small church built as a fulfillment of a vow or a promise most usually dedicated to the Virgin Mary or one of the saints

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