Neighborhood characteristics of child maltreatment in georgia 4 3 2009
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Neighborhood Characteristics of Child Maltreatment in Georgia 4. 3. 2009. Byungdeok Kang, MSW Hyejung Oh, MSW Jaegoo Lee, MSW, and Edwin Risler , PhD, MSW. WHAT DO WE PRESENT?. INTRODUCTION: Child Maltreatment Trend in Research Community Factors in Previous Studies

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Neighborhood Characteristics of Child Maltreatment in Georgia 4. 3. 2009

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Neighborhood characteristics of child maltreatment in georgia 4 3 2009

Neighborhood Characteristics of Child Maltreatment in Georgia 4. 3. 2009

Byungdeok Kang, MSW Hyejung Oh, MSW Jaegoo Lee, MSW,

and Edwin Risler, PhD, MSW


What do we present

WHAT DO WE PRESENT?

  • INTRODUCTION: Child Maltreatment

    • Trend in Research

    • Community Factors in Previous Studies

  • SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY

  • STUDY METHODS

  • STUDY FINDINGS

  • DISCUSSIONS


Introduction

INTRODUCTION

  • There are 3,000,000 reports of child abuse and neglect each year in the U.S. – 12.3 per 1000 children were maltreated

  • In Georgia , 101,563 reports were made to the Georgia Department of Family and Child Services (DFCS) representing 51,717 child victims – 22.5 per 1000 children were maltreated


Trend in research i

TREND IN RESEARCH (I)

  • Previous research on the child maltreatment has focused mainly on identifying the individual level protective and risk factors of child maltreatment.

  • Current explanation of child maltreatment focus on interacting individual, family, and neighborhood factors and suggest that neighborhood have etiological significance (National Research Council, 1993).


Trend in research ii

TREND IN RESEARCH (II)

  • Although interest in neighborhood influences on child maltreatment has increased, research that seeks to uncover the relationship between neighborhoods and child maltreatment has lagged behind research into individual and family correlates.

  • Our understanding of the causes of child maltreatment has evolved beyond the focus on individual and family characteristics to incorporate the effects of structural factors of both the community and the society at large.


Community risk factors in the previous studies

COMMUNITY RISK FACTORS IN THE PREVIOUS STUDIES


Limitations from the previous studies

LIMITATIONS FROM THE PREVIOUS STUDIES

  • Look beyond individual and family level. Incorporate community factors.

  • Geographical limitation. Need to differentiate inner city, suburb, and rural area.

  • Differentiate specific types of child maltreatment. Other than physical and sexual abuse, especially neglect, needs more research attention.


Study variables

STUDY VARIABLES


Small group activity

SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY

  • Gather in a small group (5 - 10 people)

  • Talk in your small groups about the following questions (10 minutes)

  • Prepare to present your thoughts to the class

  • Send a representative from your small group and briefly present your thoughts on your small group’s behalf


Small group activity continued

SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY (continued)


Methods

METHODS

  • SAMPLING METHOD

    • Stratified Sampling

    • 329 Zip Codes (171 MSA & 158 Non-MSA)

  • ANALYSIS METHODS

    • T-test

    • Regression

      • Bivariate / Multivariate Regression (Stepwise Selection)


Findings

FINDINGS

  • Means of Child Maltreatment/Abuse/Neglect Rates

    • Maltreatment: 7.92 cases per 1,000 children

      • Metropolitan = 6.24 cases vs. Non-Metro = 9.76 cases

    • Abuse: 3.24 cases per 1,000 children

      • Metropolitan = 2.58 cases vs. Non-Metro = 3.94 cases

    • Neglect: 5.46 cases per 1,000 children

      • Metropolitan = 4.32 cases vs. Non-Metro = 6.71 cases


Findings child maltreatment

FINDINGS: Child Maltreatment


Findings child maltreatment metropolitan vs non metropolitan

FINDINGS: Child Maltreatment – Metropolitan vs. Non-Metropolitan


Findings child abuse

FINDINGS: Child Abuse


Findings child abuse metropolitan vs non metropolitan

FINDINGS: Child Abuse – Metropolitan vs. Non-Metropolitan


Findings child neglect

FINDINGS: Child Neglect


Findings child neglect metropolitan vs non metropolitan

FINDINGS: Child Neglect – Metropolitan vs. Non-Metropolitan


Findings summary of stepwise

FINDINGS: Summary of Stepwise


Discussions i

DISCUSSIONS (I)

  • Findings I:

    Higher Rates in Poverty & Single Parent Family

    – Higher Rates in Child Maltreatment, Abuse and Neglect

  • According to community social disorganization theory, a lack of community organizations causes violent crime and other problems in community.

  • Greater levels of poverty and higher numbers of single parents families would represent a lack of social organizations in community.

  • Therefore, communities greater levels of disadvantage may not have the economic resources that need to support family functioning, particularly for sing parent families.


Discussions ii

DISCUSSIONS (II)

  • Findings II:

    Higher Rates in Child Population and Urbanization

    – Lower Rates in Child Maltreatment, Abuse and Neglect

  • By community institutional resource model, communities that have a number of child are and are urbanized may have larger numbers of social resources. So those social resources may monitor child maltreatment and promote healthy development.

  • Thus, to reduce rates of child neglect, more number of and high quality of social resources need to be provided in community.


Discussions iii

DISCUSSIONS (III)

  • Findings III:

    Among the risk factors in our study, the analyses showed that six variables were significantly associated with child neglect while four variables were with child abuse.

  • The analyses showed that there were four common significant variables: poverty, single parent family, African American population, and urbanization.

  • The analyses showed that the two variables (crowded dwelling and child population) were significant only with child neglect.


Discussions iv

DISCUSSIONS (IV)

  • Findings IV:

    The well-known community risk factors explained child maltreatment (abuse and neglect) more in the metropolitan areas than the non-metropolitan areas.

  • The previous studies did not consider much about geographic differences (e.g. metropolitan vs. non-metropolitan areas).

  • Our findings showed that there were significant differences between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas.


Implications

IMPLICATIONS

  • Our findings suggest that …

    • Changing neighborhood structural factors and creating opportunities for residents to expand social support networks;

    • Locating both economic and preventive resources enabling families to better deal with stressful and isolating circumstances; and

    • Preventing maltreatment by providing more stable home environment for children


Limitations

LIMITATIONS

  • The case of child maltreatment might be biased because DFCS data may not represent all child maltreatment cases that have been occurred in GA.

  • Since this study was done with only Georgia data, the findings would not be generalized to other areas in the United States.


Neighborhood characteristics of child maltreatment in georgia 4 3 2009

Questions & Comments

Byungdeok Kang [email protected]

Hyejung Oh [email protected]

Jaegoo Lee [email protected]

Ed [email protected]

School of Social Work, University of Georgia

THANK YOU!!!


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