Module 7 ip multicasting
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Module 7: IP Multicasting. Contents. 7.1 Explaining Multicast. Explaining the Multicast Group Concept. Unicast versus Multicast. Multicast Advantages and Disadvantages. Multicast Advantages and Disadvantages. IP multicast traffic uses UDP as the transport layer.

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Module 7: IP Multicasting

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Module 7 ip multicasting

Module 7: IP Multicasting


Contents

Contents


7 1 explaining multicast

7.1 Explaining Multicast


Explaining the multicast group concept

Explaining the Multicast Group Concept


Unicast versus multicast

Unicast versus Multicast


Multicast advantages and disadvantages

Multicast Advantages and Disadvantages


Multicast advantages and disadvantages1

Multicast Advantages and Disadvantages

  • IP multicast traffic uses UDP as the transport layer.

  • Unlike TCP, UDP adds no reliability, flow control, or error-recovery functions to IP.

  • Because of the simplicity of UDP, data-packet headers contain fewer bytes and consume less network overhead than TCP.

  • Reliability in multicast is therefore managed at the receiving client and by QoS in the network.


Multicast applications

Multicast Applications


Ip multicast addresses

IP Multicast Addresses

Multicast IP Address Structure

Destin. IP: Multicast

Src. IP: Unicast


Ip multicast addresses1

IP Multicast Addresses


Layer 2 multicast addressing

Layer 2 Multicast Addressing

  • The second half of the MAC address (24 bits) derives from:

    0 + 23 bits (copied from the IP address)

  • The host copies the last 23 bits of the multicast IP address into the last 23 bits of the MAC address.

  • Why the conversion?

  • Host: “If I join multicast group 224.10.8.5, I will listen for the MAC address 01-00-5E-0A-08-05.”


Layer 2 multicast addressing1

Layer 2 Multicast Addressing

2^5 (=32)개의 Multicast IP 주소가 동일한 multicast MAC 주소를 사용한다.

그러나 계층 3에서 IP 주소를 사용하여 올바른 패킷을 찾는다.


Multicast sessions

Multicast Sessions


7 2 igmp and layer 2 issues

7.2 IGMP and Layer 2 Issues


Igmp internet group management protocol

IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol

  • Hosts use IGMP to dynamically register themselves in a multicast group on a particular LAN.

  • Hosts identify group memberships by sending IGMP messages to their local multicast router.

  • Routers and multilayer switches, configured for IGMP, listen to IGMP messages and periodically send out queries to discover which groups are active or inactive on a particular subnet or VLAN.

  • The following list indicates the current versions of IGMP:

    • IGMP version 1 (IGMPv1) RFC 1112

    • IGMP version 2 (IGMPv2) RFC 2236

    • IGMP version 3 (IGMPv3) RFC 3376

    • IGMP version 3 lite (IGMPv3 lite)


Module 7 ip multicasting

IGMP

  • IGMP v1 – version v1

    • No way to expressly leave a multicast group.

    • It’s up to the router to timeout the group membership

  • IGMP v2 – version v2

    • Includes “leave processing” mechanism

  • IGMP v3 – version v3

    • Supports "source filtering," which enables a multicast receiver host to signal to a router which groups it wants to receive multicast traffic from, and from which source(s) this traffic is expected.

    • IOS release 12.1(5) and later.

    • Current IOS release (12.2) still uses IGMPv2 as the default


Igmpv1

IGMPv1

  • One multicast router per LAN must periodically transmit host membership query messages to determine which host groups have members on the router's directly attached LAN networks.

  • IGMP query messages are addressed to the all-host group (224.0.0.1) and have an IP TTL equal to 1.

  • A TTL of 1 ensures that the corresponding router does not forward the query messages to any other multicast router.

  • When the end station receives an IGMP query message, the end station responds with a host membership report for each group to which the end station belongs.

  • IGMP messages are specified in the IP datagram with a protocol value of 2.


Igmpv11

IGMPv1

  • Routers use IGMP to query hosts on a subnet as to what multicast groups they belong to.

    • Hosts don’t have to wait for the query to join a group; they can immediately send a join request

  • Routers keep track of the multicast groups that are active on a subnet (not the actual hosts that are in each group)


Igmpv12

IGMPv1

  • IGMP Queriers (routers) send queries every 60 seconds.

    • If a host does not respond with its membership information, the router will timeout the hosts group membership

    • This process could take up to 3 minutes (not good).

  • IGMPv1 Queriers are determined by a multicast routing protocol, not IGMPv1.

  • The specific multicast routing protocol elects a designated router for the subnet. - the IGMPv1 Querier.


Igmpv13

IGMPv1

  • From the router’s perspective, it is not a host that joins the multicast group, but an interface.

  • All the router wants to know is if a segment is supposed to receive the multicast traffic.

  • It does not keep track of the exact hosts that are making the multicast requests. (Unless using CGMP)

  • The multicast traffic is sent to an entire cable segment, not to a single host.


Igmpv2

IGMPv2

  • RFC 2236 (November 1997)

  • Primarily to address the issues of leave and join latencies.

  • IGMP Queriers (routers) send two kinds of queries:

    • General queries (same as IGMPv1 queries)

    • Group-specific queries (directed at single group)


Igmpv2 join

IGMPv2 - Join

  • The process of joining a multicast group is the same in IGMPv2 as in IGMPv1.

  • Like IGMPv1, IGMPv2 hosts do not have to wait for a query to join.

  • When a host wants to join a multicast group, it sends a host membership report to the all-router group address 224.0.0.2.

To 224.0.0.2


Igmpv2 join1

IGMPv2 - Join

  • When the host and server reside on different subnets, the join message must go to a router.

  • When the router intercepts the message, it looks at its IGMP table.

  • If the network number is not in the table the router adds the information contained in the IGMP message.

  • When the router receives a multicast packet, it forward the packet to only those interface that have hosts with processes belonging to that group.

To 224.0.0.2


Igmpv2 join2

IGMPv2 - Join

  • IGMPv2 defines a procedure for electing the multicast querier (router) for each network segment.

    • Router with the lowest IP address becomes the Querier.

  • IGMPv2 has group-specific queries.

    • General query multicasts to the all-hosts 224.0.0.1

    • Group-specific query multicasts to the multicast group address.

To 224.0.0.2


Igmpv2 join3

IGMPv2 - Join

  • Similar to IGMPv1, IGMPv2 router multicasts periodic membership queries to the all-hosts (224.0.0.1) group address.

  • Only one member (host) per group responds with a report to a query.

  • IGMP uses interval and timeout timers for this process.

    • http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/c3550/1214ea1/3550scg/swmcast.htm

To 224.0.0.2


Igmpv2 leave

IGMPv2 - Leave

  • Leave group messages — provides hosts with a method of notifying routers and multilayer switches on the network that they are leaving a group.

  • show ip igmp group : show Active multicasting group


Igmpv2 leave1

IGMPv2 - Leave

  • Hosts 2 and 3 are members of multicast group 224.1.1.1.

  • Host 2 sends an IGMPv2 leave message to the all-multicast-routers group (224.0.0.2) to inform all routers and multilayer switches on the subnet that it is leaving the group.

  • Router 1, the query router, receives the message, but because it keeps a list only of the group memberships that are active on a subnet and not individual hosts that are members, it sends a group-specific query to the target group (224.1.1.1) to determine whether any hosts remain for the group.

  • Host 3 is still a member of multicast group 224.1.1.1 and receives the group-specific query.

  • It responds with an IGMPv2 membership report to inform Router 1 that a member is still present.

  • When Router 1 receives the report, it keeps the group active on the subnet.

  • If no response is received, the query router stops forwarding its traffic to the subnet.


Igmpv3

IGMPv3

  • IGMPv3 is the next step in the evolution of IGMP.

  • IGMPv3 adds support for source filtering that enables a multicast receiver to signal to a router the groups from which it wants to receive multicast traffic, and also from which sources to expect traffic.

  • This membership information enables Cisco IOS software to forward traffic from only those sourcesfrom which receivers requested the traffic.

  • IGMPv3 supports applications that explicitly signal sources from which they want to receive traffic.


Multicast in the layer 2 switching environment

Multicast in the Layer 2 Switching Environment


Layer 2 multicast protocols

Layer 2 Multicast Protocols

Multicast Table

  • Layer 2 switches have some degree of multicast awareness to avoid flooding multicasts to all switch ports.

  • The following are the two methods to control multicast at Layer 2 on multilayer switches:

    • IGMP snooping

    • Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP)

Multicast Traffic: 1.5-Mbps IP multicast–based video feed sent from a corporate video server

Sent only to those hosts that have joined that multicast group.


Igmp snooping

IGMP Snooping

I have to examine every multicast packet to see if there are any join or leave requests. Whew! This is a lot of work!

Multicast Table

  • IGMP snooping is an IP multicast constraining mechanism that examines Layer 2 and Layer 3 IP multicast information to maintain a Layer 2 multicast table.

  • IGMP snooping operates on multilayer switches, even switches that do not support Layer 3 routing.

  • IGMP snooping requires the LAN switch to examine, or “snoop,” the IGMP join and leave messages, sent between hosts and the first-hop multicast router.

  • The IGMP protocol transmits messages as IP multicast packets; as a result, switches cannot distinguish IGMP packets from normal IP multicast data at Layer 2.

Multicast Traffic: 1.5-Mbps IP multicast–based video feed sent from a corporate video server

Sent only to those hosts that have joined that multicast group.


Igmp snooping1

IGMP Snooping

I have to examine every multicast packet to see if there are any join or leave requests. Whew! This is a lot of work!

Multicast Table

  • Therefore, a switch running IGMP snooping must examine every multicast data packet to determine whether it contains any pertinent IGMP control information.

  • If IGMP snooping is implemented on a low-end switch with a slow CPU, this could have a severe performance impact when data is transmitted at high rates.

  • The solution to this problem is to implement IGMP snooping with special ASICs that can perform IGMP snooping in hardware.

  • Without specialized ASICs for IGMP snooping to operate with hardware switching, CGMP is the preferable choice for low-end switches.

Multicast Traffic: 1.5-Mbps IP multicast–based video feed sent from a corporate video server

Sent only to those hosts that have joined that multicast group.


Module 7 ip multicasting

CGMP

  • CGMP (Cisco Group Management Protocol) : allows Catalyst switches to learn about the existence of multicast clients from Cisco routers and Layer 3 switches.

  • CGMP is based on a client/server model.

  • The router is considered a CGMP server, with the switch taking on the client role.

  • The basis of CGMP is that the IP multicast router sees all IGMP packets and, therefore, can inform the switch when specific hosts join or leave multicast groups.

  • The switch then uses this information to construct a forwarding table.


Module 7 ip multicasting

Multicast Packets

CGMP

  • When the router sees an IGMP control packet, the router creates a CGMP packet.

  • This CGMP packet contains the request type (either join or leave), the multicast group address, and the actual MAC address of the client.

  • The packet is sent to a well-known address to which all switches listen.

  • Each switch then interprets the packet and creates the proper entries in a forwarding table.

IGMP Join Request


Module 7 ip multicasting

CGMP

  • CGMP is a legacy multicast switching protocol.

  • All current-generation (and future) Catalyst switches support IGMP snooping.

  • IGMP snooping has several advantages over CGMP, such as the ability to operate without a first-hop router.


7 3 multicast routing protocols

7.3 Multicast Routing Protocols


Protocols used in multicast

Protocols Used in Multicast

  • 2 types of multicast distribution trees

    • Source trees - shortest path tree (SPT)

    • Shared trees - rendezvous point (RP) between multicast sources and destination

  • 2 types of multicast routing protocols

    • Dense mode protocols : flood multicast traffic to all parts of the network and prune the flows where there are no receivers, using a periodic flood-and-prune mechanism.

    • Sparse mode protocols : use an explicit join mechanism where distribution trees are built on demand by explicit tree join messages sent by routers that have directly connected receivers


Multicast distribution trees

Multicast Distribution Trees


Multicast distribution trees identification

Multicast Distribution Trees Identification


Ip multicast routing

IP Multicast Routing


Reverse path forwarding rick

Reverse Path Forwarding (Rick)

  • Reverse path forwarding (RPF) is the mechanism that performs an incoming interface check to determine whether to forward or drop an incoming multicast frame.

  • RPF is a key concept in multicast forwarding.

  • This RPF check helps to guarantee that the distribution tree for multicast is loop-free.

  • In addition, RPF enables routers to correctly forward multicast traffic down the distribution tree.


Reverse path forwarding

Reverse Path Forwarding

For traffic flowing down a source tree, the RPF check procedure works as follows:

  • The router looks up the source address in the unicast routing table to determine whether it arrived on the interface that is on the reverse path back to the source.

  • If the packet has arrived on the interface leading back to the source, the RPF check is successful and the router replicates and forwards the packet to the outgoing interfaces.

  • If the RPF check in the previous step fails, the router drops the packet and records the drop as an RPF failed drop.


Rpf check fails

RPF check fails

151.10.3.21

224.1.1.1

  • The router in the figure receives a multicast packet from source 151.10.3.21 on interface S0.

  • A check of the unicast route table shows that this router uses interface S1 as the egress (exit) interface for forwarding unicast data to 151.10.3.21.

  • Because the packet instead arrived on interface S0, the packet fails the RPF check, and the router drops the packet.


Rpf check succeeds

RPF check succeeds

151.10.3.21

224.1.1.1

  • With this example, the multicast packet arrives on interface S1.

  • The router checks the unicast routing table and finds that interface S1 is the correct ingress (incoming) interface.

  • The RPF check passes, and the router forwards the packet.


Non rpf traffic

Non-RPF Traffic

Do Not Forward

  • In multilayer switched networks where multiple routers connect to the same LAN segment, only one PIM-designated router forwards the multicast traffic from the source to the receivers on the outgoing interfaces.

  • Router A, the PIM-designated router (PIM DR), forwards data to VLAN 1 and VLAN 2.

  • Router B receives the forwarded multicast traffic on VLAN 1 and VLAN 2, and it drops this traffic because the multicast traffic fails the RPF check. (Source IP is via the other interface.)

  • Traffic that fails the RPF check is called non-RPF traffic.

Source IP Address is not on these interfaces, but interface connected to Campus Network Router.


Protocol independent multicast describing pim dm

Protocol-Independent Multicast: Describing PIM-DM


Protocol independent multicast describing pim sm

Protocol-Independent Multicast: Describing PIM-SM


Pim sparse dense mode

PIM Sparse-Dense-Mode

  • PIM sparse-dense mode : the recommended solution from Cisco for IP multicast.

    • PIM-DM : does not scale well and requires heavy router resources.

    • PIM-SM offers limited RP configuration options.

  • If no RP is discovered for the multicast group or none is manually configured, PIM sparse-dense mode operates in dense mode. Therefore, you should implement automatic RP discovery with PIM sparse-dense mode.


Automating distribution of rp fyi

Automating Distribution of RP (FYI)

  • PIM-SM and PIM sparse-dense modes use various methods, discussed in this section, to automate the distribution of the RP.

  • This mechanism has the following benefits:

    • It eliminates the need to manually configure RP information in every router and switch in the network.

    • It is easy to use multiple RPs within a network to serve different group ranges.

    • It allows load-splitting among different RPs and allows the arrangement of RPs according to the location of group participants.

    • It avoids inconsistency; manual RP configurations may cause connectivity problems, if not configured properly.

  • PIM uses the following mechanisms to automate the distribution of the RP:

    • Auto-RP

    • Bootstrap router (BSR)


Auto rp

I’m the RP Mapping Agent, here are the group-to-RP mappings. (every 60 secs)

Auto-RP

I’m going to learn about group-to-RP mappings because I am a member of the 224.0.1.40 multicast group, Cisco-RP-discovery.

  • Auto-RP automates the distribution of group-to-RP mappings.

    • defines which multicast groups use which RP.

  • All routers in the PIM network learn about the active group-to-RP mapping from the RP mapping agent by automatically joining the Cisco-RP-discovery (224.0.1.40) multicast group.

  • The RP mapping agent is the router that sends the authoritative discovery packets that notify other routers which group-to-RP mapping to use (every 60 seconds).

  • Such a role is necessary in the event of conflicts (such as overlapping group-to-RP ranges).


Module 7 ip multicasting

I’m a member of the 224.0.1.39 multicast group, Cisco-RP-announce. This will tell me who the candidate RPs are.

  • Mapping agents also use IP multicast to discover which routers in the network are possible candidate RPs by joining the Cisco-RP-announce (224.0.1.39) group to receive candidate RP announcements.

  • Candidate RPs send RP-announce multicast messages for the particular groups every 60 seconds.

  • The RP mapping agent uses the information contained in the announcement to create entries in group-to-RP cache.

    • RP mapping agents create only one entry per group.

    • If more than one RP candidate announces the same range, then the RP mapping agent uses the IP address of the RP to break the tie.

I’m a candidate RPs. I will send this every 60 secs to 224.0.1.39.


Cisco rp discovery fyi

Cisco-RP-discovery (FYI)

I’m the RP Mapping Agent, here are the group-to-RP mappings. (every 60 secs)

  • All routers in the PIM network learn about the active group-to-RP mapping from the RP mapping agent.

  • Note: It is recommended that a RP mapping agent be configured on the router with the best connectivity and stability.

I’m going to learn about group-to-RP mappings because I am a member of the 224.0.1.40 multicast group, Cisco-RP-discovery.

Auto-RP


7 4 multicast configuration and verification

7.4 Multicast Configuration and Verification


Enabling pim sparse mode and sparse dense mode

Enabling PIM Sparse Mode and Sparse-Dense Mode

  • ip pim send-rp-announce :

    • want to be an RP.

    • sends an auto-RP message to 224.0.1.39, announcing the router as a candidate RP for the groups in the range described by the access list.

  • ip pim send-rp-discovery :

    • configures the router as an RP mapping agent.

    • listens to the 224.0.1.39 address and sends a RP-to-group mapping message to 224.0.1.40. Other PIM routers listen to 224.0.1.40 to automatically discover the RP.

ip pim send-rp-discovery loopback 0 scope 20 interval 50 ;

- configure a router to be an RP mapping agent

- use lo0 as the source address for Auto-RP messages

ip pim send-rp-announce ethernet0 scope 31 group-list 5 ; RP주소 : e0의 주소

access-list 5 permit 224.0.0.0 15.255.255.255 ; RP가 관리하는 MC 그룹주소


Inspecting the multicast routing table

Inspecting the Multicast Routing Table

(*, G) entry

  • The incoming interface is the interface toward the RP - if it is Null, the router itself is the RP.

  • The Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) neighbor is the next-hop address toward the RP.

    - If it is 0.0.0.0, the router is the RP for the group.

    • The outgoing interface list (OIL) lists the outgoing interfaces, along with modes and timers.

      (S, G) entry:

  • The incoming interface is the interface toward the source S.

  • The RPF neighbor is the next-hop address toward the source.

    - If it is 0.0.0.0, the source is directly attached.

    • The OIL lists the outgoing interfaces, in addition to modes and timers.


  • Finding pim neighbors

    Finding PIM Neighbors


    Checking rp information

    Checking RP Information


    Checking the group state

    Checking the Group State

    • If the multicast traffic is not flowing to receivers, the IGMP group membership has to be checked on the leaf routers.

    • Enabling PIM on an interface also enables IGMP operation on that interface


    Configuring a router to be a member of a group

    Configuring a Router to Be a Member of a Group

    • The following are two ways to pull multicast traffic down to a network segment. These commands are often used in lab environments where no multicast servers and receivers are configured.

      • ip igmp join-group: The router accepts the multicast packets in addition to forwarding them. 즉, group member가 된다. Accepting the multicast packets prevents the router from fast switching. Group membe

      • ip igmp static-group: The router does not accept the packets but forwards them. Hence, this method allows fast switching. The outgoing interface appears in the IGMP cache, but the router itself is not a member, as evidenced by the lack of an L (local) flag in the multicast route entry.


    Configure a router as a statically connected member

    Configure a Router as a Statically Connected Member

    • ip igmp static-group command : configure the router to be a statically connected member of a group (and allow fast switching).

    • show ip igmp interface command: display the multicast groups that are directly connected to the router and that were learned via IGMP. This command is used to determine the following information:

      • Interface configuration for multicast and IGMP

      • Version for which the IGMP interface is configured

      • IGMPv2 querier on the multiaccess network

      • Multicast designated router

      • Joined multicast groups on the current router


    Verifying igmp snooping

    Verifying IGMP Snooping

    • show ip igmp snooping command : use to display the snooping configuration information for all VLANs on the switch or for a specified VLAN


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