Confederation how and why is it historically significant
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 25

Confederation: how and why is it historically significant? PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 205 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Confederation: how and why is it historically significant?. SS10: Historical perspective & significance. How was Confederation historically significant ?. Characteristics to Establish Potential Historical Significance : Was it important? Have the consequences been durable?

Download Presentation

Confederation: how and why is it historically significant?

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Confederation how and why is it historically significant

Confederation: how and why is it historically significant?

SS10: Historical perspective & significance


Confederation how and why is it historically significant

How was Confederation historically significant ?

  • Characteristics to Establish Potential Historical Significance:

  • Was it important?

  • Have the consequences been durable?

  • How many people were affected?

  • How deeply were people affected?

  • How relevant was/is Confederation to daily life?

  • Analytical Justification of Historical Significance :

  • Does it reveal a new/enduring pattern?

  • Did it result in compelling change?

  • Is it part of a/the cultural narrative?

  • (To whom would the above apply? Not apply?)


Let s re cap

Let’s re-cap….

  • What forces/actions/events led to the move towards Confederation in the first place?

  • Proclamation of 1763

  • End of 7 Years War

  • 2) British victory

  • 3) Created Quebec, protected some Canadien traditions, some aspects not enacted

  • Quebec Act 1774

  • 1774

  • Assimilation, loyalty

  • Enlarged territory, a final intolerable act, Canadien protection, no elected assembly

  • Act of Union 1840

  • Reaction to Durham Report

  • The accepted portion of the Durham Report

  • Showed difference between colony and country, fanned the flames of reform, beginning of merger of colonies

  • Durham Report 1839

  • Post Rebellions

  • Request for cause/recommendations

  • Moving forward with ideas of reform and union


Introducing lord durham

Introducing Lord Durham

  • The Man:

  • John “Radical Jack” Lambton

  • Powerful voice of reform in 1830s

  • Advocated for secret ballot and extended voting rights

  • Born 1792 Died 1840

  • The Job:

  • Head Commission of Inquiry into 1837/8 Rebellions

  • Make recommendations for the future of Canadas.

  • Serve as GG.

  • “People who wanted to see political change in the colonies were pleased by Durham’s appointment.”Why?


Durham report observations

durham report observations

  • Causes of Conflict in Upper Canada

  • Clergy Reserves

  • “as most emigrants are not members of the COE, the disproportion is likely to increase…I know of no mode of this question being settled but by repealing all provisions in Imperial Acts that relate…to the clergy reserves…”

  • Causes of Conflict in Lower Canada

  • Industrial Economy vs. Agricultural Economy

  • “I expected to find a contest between a government and a people: I found two nations warring in the bosom of single state…It will be acknowledged…that sooner or later the English race was sure to predominate even numerically in Lower Canada.”

  • On Responsible Government

  • Noted envy of colonists of economic prosperity and democratic system of USA.

  • Annexation a real threat.

  • “this is the last effort of their almost exhausted patience…and that the government of the colony should henceforth be carried on in conformity with the views of the majority of the Assembly.”

  • On the Union of the Canadas

  • Solution to political, cultural and economic problems: assimilation.

  • “I have little doubt that the French, when once placed by legitimate course of events and the working of natural causes, in a minority, would abandon their vain hopes of a nationality.”


What is responsible government

What is Responsible government?

  • Powers of Governor General are limited

  • Executive council comes from the elected assembly

  • Executive council is accountable to the elected assembly

  • Relationshipto Canada:

    • British: the battle between Canadas and Britain

    • US: influenced the desire for responsible government to prevent the threat of annexation

    • Responsible Government in the Canadas: achieved at different times, for different peoples.


Durham report action

Durham report action

  • Accepted

  • Union of Canadas into one colony

  • Debts merged into one.

  • Canada West and Canada East.

  • One elected Legislative Assembly- each Canada had equal representation.

X

  • Denied

  • Structures to implement Responsible Government.


Push for responsible government maritimes

Push for responsible government: maritimes

Joseph Howe

  • Twice led non confidence votes against Governors

  • Appointed to Executive Council

  • Forced withdrawal of 3 governors

  • 1847 Election- Reformer Victory

  • 1848- NS

  • 1849- NB

  • 1851- PEI

  • 1855- NL


Responsible government canadas

Responsible Government: Canadas

Baron Syndenham

  • First governor of United Canadas

  • Two tasks

    • Bring economic prosperity.

      • Success!

    • Prevent introduction of responsible government.

      • Forced to end practice of lifetime appointments to Executive Council.

      • Divided Clergy Reserves amongst all Churches.

      • Clergy Reserve Revenues used to fund schools.

      • District Council Act 1841.

LA

Support


Responsible government canadas1

Responsible Government: Canadas

  • Election 1844

  • Tories win a majority.

  • Metcalfe (GG) appoints Tories to Executive Council

  • Election 1848

  • Refomers win large majority.

  • Metcalfe has resigned, GG is now Elgin (Durham’s son in law), Secretary is now Grey (Durham’s brother in law).

  • Elgin calls upon Baldwin and LaFontaine to form Executive Council. They select from their Assembly.

  • Test #1

  • 1849 Rebellion Losses Bill

  • Elgin did not favour passage; signs it.

  • Test #2

  • 1859 tariffs (20%) on imported goods to raise money for public works.

  • British merchants upset, British government threatens to dissallow, but eventually backs down.


If it s not one thing

If it’s not one thing…


It s another

…it’s another.

  • Double Majority leading to Deadlock…

  • …Both English AND French

  • …Both Canada West AND Canada East


Confederation how and why is it historically significant

… and, another.

Chaos in the Parties…


Confederation how and why is it historically significant

… and, another.

  • Overarching problem: Lack of stable government (double majority, chaos).

Clear Grits

Canada West

George Brown

Parti Rouge

Canada East

Antoine-AimeDorion

Reformers

Liberals

Canada West

Francis Hinks

Conservative Party

Canada West

(John A Macdonald, Alan McNab)

Bleus

Canada East

Geroge-Etienne Cartier

Moderate

Expansion of industry and commerce


Confederation how and why is it historically significant

… and, another.

  • Overarching problem: Lack of stable government (double majority, chaos).

  • Coping Mechanisms: Coalition Governments


Confederation how and why is it historically significant

… and, another.

  • Overarching problem: Lack of stable government.

  • Solution? The Great Coalition.

Galt

Clear Grits

Canada West

George Brown

Parti Rouge

Canada East

Antoine-AimeDorion

Reformers

Liberals

Canada West

Francis Hinks

Conservative Party

Canada West

(John A Macdonald, Alan McNab)

Bleus

Canada East

Geroge-Etienne Cartier

Moderate

Expansion of industry and commerce

See pg 84


Confederation the work of the great coalition

Confederation:The Work of the Great Coalition

  • Pressing Issue:

    • Unstable governments… deadlock… lack of progress

  • Generally Accepted Solution:

    • Union

  • Pressing Questions:

    • Is accommodation of distinctive cultures possible?

    • What form of government would best serve the colonies?

    • Will union provide security?


Confederation the work of the great coalition1

Confederation:The Work of the Great Coalition

  • Compromise

    • Dogmatic vs. Pragmatic Leadership

    • Formative Events


Confederation the work of the great coalition2

Confederation:The Work of the Great Coalition

  • Auxiliary Kingdom

  • Life Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness vs. Peace, Order and Good Government

IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.


To join or not to join

To join or not to join….

Task

Read the information on your given colony

Identify the position taken on joining Confederation

Identify the reasons for their position

Consider the multiple perspectives on this position

Prepare to share with the class


Confederation conferences

Confederation conferences

Three conferences took place that helped shape the move towards Confederation:

1) Charlottetown (September 1864)

2) Quebec (October 1864),

3) London, England (December 1866).

Discussion and debate from these conferences would eventually lead to the signing of the British North America Act in 1867 and the formation of the Dominion of Canada

What happened in the Conferences?


Charlottetown conference 1864

Charlottetown conference 1864

  • Leaders of the Maritime provinces were already meeting to discuss a form of unity

  • Goal was to gain greater independence from the British

  • Province of Canada found out about this meeting and asked to be included

  • Outcomes of the conference

  • PEI, NS and NB were concerned about joining in a union with the Province of Canada

  • Agreed to meet one month later in Quebec


Quebec conference 1864

Quebec conference 1864

  • Beginning to draft the resolutions needed to shape out a united Canada looking at the British colonies north of the 49th parallel

  • Outcomes of the Conference

  • Agreements made on power division, structure of government and a civil code

  • NS and NB agreed to join the Province of Canada


London conference 1866

London Conference 1866

  • NS, NB and the Province of Canada working together to discuss issues facing the new Dominion

  • Confederation achieved

  • On July 1, 1867, Queen Victoria assented to the bill that became the British North America Act, creating the Dominion of Canada. The new dominion was made up of four provinces:

  • Ontario

  • Quebec

  • Nova Scotia

  • New Brunswick


Confederation how and why is it historically significant

How was Confederation historically significant ?

  • Characteristics to Establish Potential Historical Significance:

  • Was it important?

  • Have the consequences been durable?

  • How many people were affected?

  • How deeply were people affected?

  • How relevant was/is Confederation to daily life?

  • Analytical Justification of Historical Significance :

  • Does it reveal a new/enduring pattern?

  • Did it result in compelling change?

  • Is it part of a/the cultural narrative?

  • (To whom would the above apply? Not apply?)


  • Login