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ПАМЯТИ Георгия Тимофеевича ЗАЦЕПИНА PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Л.Г. Деденко, Г.Ф. Федорова, Т.М. Роганова А.В. (НИИЯФ МГУ), " Дополнительная проверка моделей взаимодействий адронов и состав первичного космического излучения при энергиях выше 3*10**17 эВ по данным Якутской установки". ПАМЯТИ Георгия Тимофеевича ЗАЦЕПИНА.

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ПАМЯТИ Георгия Тимофеевича ЗАЦЕПИНА

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.. , .. , .. .. ( )," 3*10**17 "

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  • () .

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1) ( )

2) , ,

3) ,

( ),

.

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  • ~31019 [1] [2] - ( ). - , .

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  • [3,4] (dip ), (bump), ( ).

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  • , , , , , , , .

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  • 1) ()

  • 2)

  • .

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  • :

  • ~ 50 /2

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  • :

  • :

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  • 2012 .

  • .

  • , EPOS 1.99 EPOS 1.99 LHC .

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LHC

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LHC

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Qgsjet ii

QGSJET-II

  • Ostapchenko S. QGSJET-II: Results for extensive air showers // Nucl.

  • Phys. Proc. Suppl. 2006. Vol. 151. Pp. 147150; astroph/0412591.

  • Ostapchenko S. Hadronic interactions at cosmic ray energies // Nucl.

  • Phys. B, Proc. Suppl. 2008. Vol. 175-176. Pp. 7380; hep

  • ph/0612068.

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  • QGSJET-II

  • EPOS 1.99

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  • .. , . 6- . . - . . 2. . 212-221.1960. .

  • , , Xmax

  • .

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  • .. , . 6- . . - . . 2. . 212-221.1960. .

  • ,

  • ,

  • .

  • ( ~ 106)

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Physics and simulation of air showers

Physics and simulationof air showers

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The highest energy event by agasa 2 5 x 10 20 ev on 10 may 2001

The Highest Energy Event by AGASA2.5 x 1020 eV on 10 May 2001

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(), (), - () ().

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  • ?

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  • ?

  • ( )

  • ! !

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Performance of hadronic interaction models proton proton event at 7 tev c m energy

Performance of hadronic interaction modelsProton-proton event at 7 TeV c.m. energy

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13 september 2012 lhc collides protons with lead ions for the first time

13 September 2012LHC collides protons with lead ions for the first time

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Pseudorapidity

Pseudorapidity

  • emission angle of a particle from

  • interaction point (mid-rapidity : h=0)

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When the mass of the particle is known the rapidity is used

when the mass of the particle is knownthe rapidity is used :

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Charged particle distribution in pseudorapidity

Charged particle distribution in pseudorapidity

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Charged particle distribution in pseudorapidity1

Charged particle distribution in pseudorapidity

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  • !

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Charged particle distribution in pseudorapidity2

Charged particle distribution in pseudorapidity

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?

  • , !

  • !

  • ?

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Lhcf forward photon production pp x

LHCf: forward photon production pp X

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  • ( 2.5 )

  • !

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  • ?

  • ,

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  • ?

  • F(E)dE

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  • :

  • :

  • 1.1 Fp(E)dE -

  • 1.2 FHe(E)dE-

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  • . . . -

  • ATIC-2 // . . . .

  • 2007. . 71. . 512515; astroph/0612377. (, )

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G&H

  • Gaisser T. K., Honda M. Flux of atmospheric neutrinos // Annu. Rev.

  • Nucl. Part. Sci. 2002. Vol. 52. Pp. 153199.

  • dNA/dEk= K * (Ek + b exp(cEk),

  • () K bc

  • H (1) 2.74 14900 2.15 0.21

  • He (4) 2.64600 1.25 0.14

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R atic2 g h

R ATIC2/G&H

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  • F(E)dE

  • E :

  • 1.3 Fp(E,E)dE - E

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Epos 1 99

EPOS 1.99

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Qgsjet2

QGSJET2

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  • F(E)dE

  • 1.4 FHe(E,E)dE-

  • E

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Epos 1 991

EPOS 1.99

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Qgsjet21

QGSJET2

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  • F(E)dE=

  • = (Fp(E)dEFp(E,E) +

  • +FHe(E)dEFHe(E,E))dE

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  • ?

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L3 ,

  • Achard P. et al.

  • Measurement of the atmospheric muon spectrum from

  • 20 GeV to 3000 GeV

  • // Phys. Lett. 2004. Vol. B598. Pp. 1532; hepex/0408114

  • 103 !

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Macro

MACRO- ,

  • Ambrosio M. et al. Vertical muon intensity measured with MACRO at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

  • // Phys. Rev. 1995. Vol. D52. Pp. 37933802

  • 103 !

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R L3 ( 1) MACRO ( 1), .-EPOS 1.99, .-QGSJET2

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.

  • Kochanov A.A., Sinegovskaya T. S., Sinegovsky S. I., High-energy cosmic

  • ray fluxes in the Earth atmosphere: calculations vs experiments.

  • arXiv:0803.2943 [astro-ph] <http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.2943>;

  • ,

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  • .

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Ratio R1 oftheobservedintensities

( [21],

- [22],

[23],

[24],

[25],

+ [26])

of the vertical muons to the calculated muon intensity

in terms of the QGSJET-II model vs. an impulse p of muons.

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  • QGSJET2

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The fraction of muons in EAS calculated in terms of the QGSJETII and Gheisha-2002d models for the primary protons (solid line) and the primary iron nuclei (dashed line) and observed at the YaA (dots with error bars) vs. the signal Es(600).

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  • QGSJET2 1.3

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  • ( ),

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  • .

  • ,

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  • !

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  • . . .

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  • - , , ,

  • 600

  • :

  • a b , b < 1.

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,

1-b.

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-

c

Ac

(1-b),

c> 0

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.

1-b().

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CORSIKA 6.616

  • QGSJET2 Gheisha 2002

  • (thinning)

  • =10-8

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  • GEANT4.

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Detector model

Detector model

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Signals in scintillation detector

Signals in scintillation detector

  • Signals E in MeV in detectors as functions of

  • 1) energy E

  • and

  • 2) the zenith angle (cos())

  • of various incoming particles:

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Electrons

Electrons

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Positrons

Positrons

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Gammas

Gammas

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Muons

Muons

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  • , , 1017 31019 .

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  • , , , 2.3 3.2 . .

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  • CORSIKA 6.616 1017 1020

  • 1) 1 550-650

  • 2) 0.3 100 600 ( 550 650 ).

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,

h=3.2 :

=1.05 ,

=1.5 ,

=10 .

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  • 1. E s(600) :

  • E=as(600)

  • a=4.61017 .

  • 2.

  • a=31017

  • 3. .

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  • s(600) E:

  • s(600)=E(E/3*1017 )

  • :

  • s(600)=E(E/4.6*1017 )

  • E =10.5

  • 1.6 !

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  • (600)

  • s(600)

  • ( )

  • =kE(600)/s(600)

  • k - .

  • 1.6

  • ( )

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  • ~Eb

  • b=0.895.

  • , 0.105 = 1.53 .

  • - .

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  • ,

  • k=1.3.

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  • h = 2.5 , () ( 0) .

  • (0.65 0.7 1 ),

  • 10.5 .

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Dependence of the signal Eu(600) on

an energy Eof the vertical muons.

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Dependence of the signal Eu(600) on an energy

E of the vertical muonsin interval 0 2 GeV.

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  • !

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Dependence of the atomic number <ln A>

on the energy E for YaA [12].

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Dependence of the atomic number <ln A> on the energy E for various

experiments: [12], [9], [33], [32].

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  • s(600), ?

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Standard agasa approach

Standard AGASA approach

  • Like AGASA:

  • 1. The CIC method to estimate s(600) for the vertical EAS from data for the inclined EAS.

  • 2. Calculation s(600) for the vertical EAS with energy E:

  • 3. E=31017s(600), eV

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Spectrum

Spectrum

  • Energy spectra are different for these approaches

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Points yakutsk data stars pao circles yakutsk like agasa

points Yakutsk data, stars PAO circles Yakutsk like AGASA

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Ratio of intensities of the PCR observed at the YaA [12] estimated

with help of (3) (solid circles) and with help of (4) (open circles) to

the intensity observed at the HiRes [14] (solid line)

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  • ,

  • , , .. :

  • !

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  • 31018 1019

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  • !

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Ratio of intensities of the PCR observed at the YaA [12] estimated

with help of (3) (solid circles) and with help of (4) (open circles) to

the intensity observed at the HiRes [14] (solid line)

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Ratio R1 of the observed intensities ( [24], [25], [26], [27], [28],

line [29]) of the vertical muons to the calculated vertical intensity of muons [22] in

terms of the QGSJET-II model versus an impulse p of muons.

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Ratio R2 of muon densities calculated in terms of the FLUKA model to the

muon density with the Gheisha-2002d model versus a distance r from a

shower axis.

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Dependence of the atomic number <ln A> on the energy E for various

experiments: [12], [9], [33], [32].

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Ratio R1 of the observed intensities ( [25], grey line [26])

of the vertical muons to the calculated vertical intensity of muons

[19] in terms of the QGSJET-II model versus an impulse p of muons.

4- 07 2013


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The fraction of muons corrected due to results of

[19, 21-26, 27, 29].

4- 07 2013


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Ratio of intensities of the PCR observed at the YaA [12] estimated

with help of (3) (solid circles) and with help of (4) (open circles) to

the intensity observed at the HiRes [14] (solid line)

4- 07 2013


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Dependence of the atomic number <ln A>

on the energy E for YaA [12].

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.., .., ..

. , . ., . 26, 5, . 685-688, 1962.

Gorunov N.N., Dedenko L.G., Zatsepin G.T.

Nature of primary component of cosmic rays and fluctuation character of EAS

J. Phys. Soc. Jap. Suppl. A-III, v. 17, p. 103-105, 1962.

4- 07 2013


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Dependence of the signal Eu on an energy E of the vertical muons.

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The fraction of muons in EAS calculated in terms of the

QGSJET-II and Gheisha-2002d models for the primary protons

(solid line) and the primary iron nuclei (dashed line) and

observed at the YaA[12] (dots with error bars) versus the energy E.

4- 07 2013


5725763

Ratio R1 of the observed intensities ( [24], [25], [26], [27], [28],

line [29]) of the vertical muons to the calculated vertical intensity of muons [22] in

terms of the QGSJET-II model versus an impulse p of muons.

4- 07 2013


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Ratio R2 of muon densities calculated in terms of the FLUKA model to the

muon density with the Gheisha-2002d model versus a distance r from a

shower axis.

4- 07 2013


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Dependence of the atomic number <ln A> on the energy E for various

experiments: [12], [9], [33], [32].

4- 07 2013


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Dependence of the signal Eu on an energy E of the vertical muons.

4- 07 2013


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Ratio R1 of the observed intensities ( [25], grey line [26])

of the vertical muons to the calculated vertical intensity of muons

[19] in terms of the QGSJET-II model versus an impulse p of muons.

4- 07 2013


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The fraction of muons corrected due to results of

[19, 21-26, 27, 29].

4- 07 2013


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Ratio of intensities of the PCR observed at the YaA [12] estimated

with help of (3) (solid circles) and with help of (4) (open circles) to

the intensity observed at the HiRes [14] (solid line)

4- 07 2013


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Dependence of the atomic number <ln A>

on the energy E for YaA [12].

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600 .1 10^17 , 2 10^18 , 3 10^19 , 4 10^20 .

4- 07 2013


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