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Trait and Factor Theories. Trait and Factor Theories. Basic premise: we are attracted to a given career by our particular personality and numerous variables that constitute our background Basic Principles Know oneself: aptitudes, abilities, interests, limitations Know the job market

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Trait and Factor Theories

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Trait and Factor Theories


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Trait and Factor Theories

  • Basic premise: we are attracted to a given career by our particular personality and numerous variables that constitute our background

  • Basic Principles

    • Know oneself: aptitudes, abilities, interests, limitations

    • Know the job market

    • Apply “true reasoning” when matching oneself to an occupation

    • The counselor provides information about client’s personality characteristics and what occupations would be a nice fit for the client based upon these characteristics


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Trait and Factor Theories

  • Parsons (1909)

    • Study the individual

    • Survey the occupations

    • Match the individual to the occupation


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Trait and Factor Theories

  • Williamson and Darley (1937) Presenting career concerns

    • No Choice

    • Uncertain choice

    • Unwise chose

    • Discrepancy

  • Williams and Darley (1937)

    • 1. Analysis

    • 2. Synthesis

    • 3. Diagnosis

    • 4. Prognosis

    • 5. Counseling

    • 6. Follow up


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Holland’s Theory of Personality

Formal Statements

  • Individuals can be classified by personality type

  • Environments can be classified by personality type

  • We search for environments that are a good fit

  • Behavior is an interaction of personality and environment

  • Limitations

    • The theory leaves no room for variables such as: gender, ethnicity, age etc. and the impact these variables play in the career matching process


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    Holland’s Theory of Personality

    • 6 Modal Personality Types

      • Realistic

      • Investigative

      • Artistic

      • Social

      • Enterprising

      • Conventional


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    Holland’s Theory of Personality

    • Key Concepts

      • Congruence

      • Consistence

      • Differentiation

      • Identity

      • Calculus

    • Modal Occupational Environments

      • 6 environmental types


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    Holland’s Theory of Personality

    • Inventories Based on Holland’s Model

      • Self Directed Search (SDS)

      • The Vocational Preference Inventory (7th ed.)

      • My Vocational Situation (MVS)

      • Vocational Interest (VI)

      • Position Classification Inventory (PCI)

      • The Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory

      • Strong Interest Inventory (SII)

      • Career Assessment Inventory (CAI)


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    Holland’s Theory of Personality

    • Validating the constructs: Spokane, 1996; Osipow and Fitzgerald, 1996; Holland, Fritzsche, and Powell, 1994

    • Hartung, Coh, and Gaylor (2001)

      • Birth order and Holland personality type

    • Smart, 1997; Smart & Feldman, 1998; Thompson & Smart, 1999

      • Faculty personality types and student personality types

    • Fit between Holland code and work environment

    • Hot Debate: are personality and interests the same constructs?


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    Holland’s Theory of Personality

    • Spokane’s (1991) recommendations of gathering occupational information

      • Record both + and – reactions to occupations

      • Gather occupations that match interests

      • Focus on depth

      • Career counseling is a behavioral and cognitive process


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    • Trait and Factor Career Counseling Model (Dawis, 1996)

      • Conduct the intake interview

      • Identify developmental variables

      • Assessment

      • Identify and solve problems

      • Generate a PEF analysis

      • Confirm, explore, decide

      • Follow up


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