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Trait and Factor Theories. Trait and Factor Theories. Basic premise: we are attracted to a given career by our particular personality and numerous variables that constitute our background Basic Principles Know oneself: aptitudes, abilities, interests, limitations Know the job market

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trait and factor theories2
Trait and Factor Theories
  • Basic premise: we are attracted to a given career by our particular personality and numerous variables that constitute our background
  • Basic Principles
    • Know oneself: aptitudes, abilities, interests, limitations
    • Know the job market
    • Apply “true reasoning” when matching oneself to an occupation
    • The counselor provides information about client’s personality characteristics and what occupations would be a nice fit for the client based upon these characteristics
trait and factor theories3
Trait and Factor Theories
  • Parsons (1909)
    • Study the individual
    • Survey the occupations
    • Match the individual to the occupation
trait and factor theories4
Trait and Factor Theories
  • Williamson and Darley (1937) Presenting career concerns
    • No Choice
    • Uncertain choice
    • Unwise chose
    • Discrepancy
  • Williams and Darley (1937)
    • 1. Analysis
    • 2. Synthesis
    • 3. Diagnosis
    • 4. Prognosis
    • 5. Counseling
    • 6. Follow up
holland s theory of personality
Holland’s Theory of Personality

Formal Statements

    • Individuals can be classified by personality type
    • Environments can be classified by personality type
    • We search for environments that are a good fit
    • Behavior is an interaction of personality and environment
  • Limitations
    • The theory leaves no room for variables such as: gender, ethnicity, age etc. and the impact these variables play in the career matching process
holland s theory of personality6
Holland’s Theory of Personality
  • 6 Modal Personality Types
    • Realistic
    • Investigative
    • Artistic
    • Social
    • Enterprising
    • Conventional
holland s theory of personality7
Holland’s Theory of Personality
  • Key Concepts
    • Congruence
    • Consistence
    • Differentiation
    • Identity
    • Calculus
  • Modal Occupational Environments
    • 6 environmental types
holland s theory of personality8
Holland’s Theory of Personality
  • Inventories Based on Holland’s Model
    • Self Directed Search (SDS)
    • The Vocational Preference Inventory (7th ed.)
    • My Vocational Situation (MVS)
    • Vocational Interest (VI)
    • Position Classification Inventory (PCI)
    • The Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory
    • Strong Interest Inventory (SII)
    • Career Assessment Inventory (CAI)
holland s theory of personality9
Holland’s Theory of Personality
  • Validating the constructs: Spokane, 1996; Osipow and Fitzgerald, 1996; Holland, Fritzsche, and Powell, 1994
  • Hartung, Coh, and Gaylor (2001)
    • Birth order and Holland personality type
  • Smart, 1997; Smart & Feldman, 1998; Thompson & Smart, 1999
    • Faculty personality types and student personality types
  • Fit between Holland code and work environment
  • Hot Debate: are personality and interests the same constructs?
holland s theory of personality10
Holland’s Theory of Personality
  • Spokane’s (1991) recommendations of gathering occupational information
    • Record both + and – reactions to occupations
    • Gather occupations that match interests
    • Focus on depth
    • Career counseling is a behavioral and cognitive process
slide11
Trait and Factor Career Counseling Model (Dawis, 1996)
    • Conduct the intake interview
    • Identify developmental variables
    • Assessment
    • Identify and solve problems
    • Generate a PEF analysis
    • Confirm, explore, decide
    • Follow up
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