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Increasing Preservice Teachers' Capacity for Technology Integration Through the Use of Electronic Models. Melissa Dark Purdue University. Background. 70% of teachers report not feeling well prepared to use technology Even new teachers feel ill-equipped to integrate technology

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Increasing Preservice Teachers' Capacity for Technology IntegrationThrough the Use of Electronic Models

Melissa Dark

Purdue University


Background
Background

  • 70% of teachers report not feeling well prepared to use technology

  • Even new teachers feel ill-equipped to integrate technology

  • Growth in ideas about, and confidence for, technology integration have not kept pace with growth in skills


Why is integration hard to achieve
Why is Integration Hard to Achieve?

  • Teachers don’t know what technology integration should look like or how to accomplish it

  • They lack confidence for achieving something they have neither observed nor experienced

  • Teachers need information about why and how to use technology in meaningful ways


Increasing capacity for technology integration
Increasing Capacity for Technology Integration

  • Increase Ideas

    • Create a vision

    • Delineate strategies

  • Increase Self-Efficacy

    • Personal mastery

    • Vicarious experiences

    • Social persuasion

    • Physiological indicators


Vicarious experiences a powerful option
Vicarious Experiences: A Powerful Option

  • Personal experiences are difficult to arrange

  • Use of models provides information about how to accomplish the task

  • Observing models can also increase confidence for performing similarly


Should we use electronic models
Should We Use Electronic Models?

  • Avoid logistical problems associated with real-time observations

  • Guarantee that certain performances are observed

  • Multimedia capability can bring models “to life”

  • Will learners feel removed or isolated from classrooms observed electronically?


Methods
Methods

  • Pretest-posttest research design

  • Examined preservice teachers’ ideas about, and self-efficacy for, technology integration before and after interacting with electronic models of exemplary technology-using teachers

  • Quantitative data triangulated with qualitative data


Participants
Participants

  • 69 students enrolled in 6 sections of a one-credit undergraduate technology course

    • Age Range: 18-25 (x = 20)

    • Gender: 65% female

    • Class: 71% Sophomores or Juniors

    • Major: 60% Elementary Education


Description of modeling tool
Description of Modeling Tool

VisionQuest

  • CD-ROM tool incorporating video, audio, text, and electronic artifacts

  • Illustrates the beliefs and practices of six classroom teachers

  • Allows users to explore teachers’ classrooms one at a time or thematically





Procedures timeframe
Procedures—Timeframe

  • Week 1

    • Demographic information and consent obtained

  • Week 10

    • Students completed (pre) idea and self-efficacy surveys

    • Students evaluated VQ using a software evaluation form

  • Week 11

    • Students used VQ to learn about classroom organization issues

    • Students completed (post) idea and self-efficacy surveys


Data sources
Data Sources

  • Demographic Questionnaire

  • Online Surveys (pre and post)

    • Ideas: “I have specific ideas about how to use one computer effectively during large group instruction.”

    • Self-Efficacy: “I am confident I can use one computer effectively during large group instruction.”

  • Software Evaluation Questions

  • Observations and Interviews


Data analysis
Data Analysis

  • Frequencies and percentages

  • Paired t-tests

  • Pearson correlations

  • Qualitative pattern seeking


Results changing ideas and efficacy
Results-Changing Ideas and Efficacy

  • Two-tailed paired t (df = 68) indicated significant increase in students’ ratings of perceived ideas (t = 8.85; p < .0000) from pre- to post survey

  • Two-tailed paired t (df = 68) indicated significant increase in students’ ratings of confidence (t = 3.34; p < .000) from pre- to post survey


Results relationships among variables
Results-Relationships among Variables

  • Significance level set at p < .0005

    (critical r = .35)

  • No significant relationships among demographic characteristics (age, gender, class) and pre- and post- ideas and efficacy

  • No significant relationships among ratings of computer skills (novice, beginner, etc.) and pre- and post- ideas and efficacy


Significant relationships
Significant Relationships

  • Ideas for technology integration, pre and post, were significantly correlated

    (r = .61)

  • Confidence for technology integration, pre and post, was significantly

    correlated (r = .50)

  • Perceptions of ideas and confidence were significantly correlated, pre (r = .72) and post (r = . 84)


Students perceptions of learning from electronic models
Students’ Perceptions of Learning from Electronic Models

  • On a scale from 1 (low) - 5 (high), students rated the classroom activities observed as realistic

    (x = 4.46)

  • On a scale from 1-5, students rated the video examples observed as relevant

    (x = 4.31)

  • Student interview comments were overwhelmingly positive


Students new ideas included
Students’ New Ideas Included:

  • Using new assessment techniques

  • Organizing group work

  • Using different activities to teach same content

  • Using HyperStudio in a music class

  • Establishing a good climate

  • Using stations


Discussion
Discussion

  • Electronic models can be used to increase ideas and self-efficacy for technology integration

  • Models were considered realistic and relevant

  • Medium - high levels of skills do not translate into ideas or confidence

  • Increasing teachers’ specific ideas for technology use may be one way to increase confidence


Implications
Implications

  • VisionQuest can be used as the “textbook” for technology integration courses.

  • Within a “one-computer classroom,”

    VisionQuest can be used to provide visual classroom scenarios for discussion or analysis.

  • Individually or collectively, students could investigate different portions of VisionQuest within a lab-setting.


Limitations future research
Limitations/Future Research

  • Lack of control group

  • Homogeneous group of participants

  • Perceptions may not translate into action

  • Long-range benefits are unknown


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Many teachers lack ideas and confidence for integrating technology into their classrooms

  • Self-efficacy theory suggests that observing models can serve informational and motivational functions

  • Electronic models increase educators’ options for providing future teachers with exemplary models



For more information
For more information:

  • Melissa Dark <[email protected]>

    Paper available at:

    http://www.edci.purdue.edu/ertmer/conferences


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