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Energy from Organic Fuels. F1 The Need for Energy. The Need for Energy. Types of energy: . Electric, . heat,. light,. mechanical,. chemical,. and nuclear energy. Law of Physics. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy can be changed from one form to another.

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Energy from organic fuels

Energy from Organic Fuels

F1 The Need for Energy


The need for energy
The Need for Energy

  • Types of energy:

  • Electric,

  • heat,

  • light,

  • mechanical,

  • chemical,

  • and nuclearenergy

  • Law of Physics

  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed

  • Energy can be changed from one form to another

  • The storage, transfer, and conversion of energy are the driving forces behind all life on Earth

  • Example: The energy in the food you eat once came from the sun

  • Food is a form of fuel your body uses for energy

  • Fuel is any substance from which energy can be obtained


The need for energy1
The Need for Energy

  • Except for lightning, electricity, is not a form of energy that is common in nature

  • Generated by the conversion of other forms of energy

  • Fuel is burned to boil water

  • Boiling water produces steam

  • Steam exerts pressure on a turbine

  • Makes the turbine turn

  • Turning produces mechanical energy

  • Mechanical energy generates electricity


The need for energy2
The Need for Energy

  • Much of the fuel consumed by today's society is used to generate electricity

  • But this conversion is not 100 percent efficient

  • During the process, some energy is lost when it is converted to heat, light, or sound

Changing Energy Needs

  • Energy needs have changed over time

  • Hunter-gatherer societies had very limited energy requirements

  • Used energy only for light, heat, and cooking

  • Wood adequately met these needs


Changing energy needs
Changing Energy Needs

  • As agricultural societies emerged, energy demands changed

  • In addition to the need for light, heat and cooking

  • domesticated animals such as horses, mules, and oxen became the energy sources for powering plows and other farm equipment


Changing energy needs1
Changing Energy Needs

  • Following the Industrial Revolution, energy needs changed again

  • Tasks that used to be done by people and animals were taken over by machines

  • Manufacturing the machines in factories required large amounts of fuel

  • More fuel was needed to run the machines after they were made


Changing energy needs2
Changing Energy Needs

  • Factories that produce the clothing, furniture, and building materials needed by a growing population also increase fuel consumption.

  • Even more fuel is required to distribute and market these products


Fuels from organisms
Fuels from Organisms

  • Organic fuels – fuels that contain carboncompounds that were once part of livingorganisms

  • In addition to carbon, organic fuels also contain hydrogen

  • A compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen is called a hydrocarbon.

  • Methane CH4

Each carbon molecule requires 4 bonds

  • H

What goes at the end of each bond?

How many carbon molecules are in methane?

1

  • H

  • H

  • C

A Hydrogen molecule

4

  • H

How many are there?


Fuels from organisms1
Fuels from Organisms

  • Methane CH4

  • Ethane C2H6

  • H

  • C

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • C

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • C

  • H

  • H

How many carbon molecules do we have?

2

How many hydrogen molecules do we have?

6

How do we put this together?

Every carbon needs 4 bonds

Every hydrogen needs 1 bond


Fuels from organisms2
Fuels from Organisms

  • Methane CH4

  • Ethane C2H6

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • C

  • C

  • C

  • H

  • H

  • H


Try to draw this molecule

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • C

  • C

  • C

  • C

  • C

  • C

  • C

  • C

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • H

  • Iso-octane C8H18

Notice both octane and iso-octane have 8 carbon and 18 hydrogen


Fuels from organisms3
Fuels from Organisms

  • Octanes – both have 8 carbon and 18 hydrogen molecules

  • Octane – is a straight chain

  • Iso-Octane – is branched chain

  • Less volatile and less flammable

  • Added to gasoline to control the rate at which it burns in a car's engine


Fuels from organisms4
Fuels from Organisms

  • In addition to hydrocarbons, many organic fuels contain other chemicals, such as sulfur or lead compounds

  • These other chemicals are considered to be impurities in the fuel

  • Some impurities, such as lead in gasoline, improve the ability of the fuel to provide usable energy

  • Unfortunately, impurities also contribute to the pollution released when the fuels are burned


Fossil fuels
Fossil Fuels

  • Like the organisms of today, ancient organisms required energy to carry out their lifeprocesses

  • Energy from the sun was converted to chemical energy by plants and microorganisms

  • When these organisms died, some energy remained stored in their cells

  • If the organisms became buried and did notdecay, this energy remained stored within Earth

  • Fossil Fuels – Fuels derived from the remains of organisms that lived a long time ago


Fossil fuels1
Fossil Fuels

  • Examples of fossil fuels:

  • Coal,

  • petroleum

  • (gasoline),

  • andnaturalgas

Section Review

  • Complete the questions in the section review


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