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Chapter 12. Concepts of Emergency and Disaster Preparedness. Disaster. Disaster — an event in which illness or injuries exceed resource capabilities of a community or medical facility: Violence Illness outbreaks Severe weather Earthquakes Avalanches Fire.

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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

Concepts of Emergency and Disaster Preparedness


Disaster

  • Disaster—an event in which illness or injuries exceed resource capabilities of a community or medical facility:

    • Violence

    • Illness outbreaks

    • Severe weather

    • Earthquakes

    • Avalanches

    • Fire


Multi-Casualty Events and Mass Casualty Events

  • Multi-Casualty Event—can be managed by a hospital using local resources.

  • Mass Casualty Event—local medical capabilities are overwhelmed and may require the collaboration of multiple agencies and health care facilities to handle the crisis.


Hurricane Katrina


Impact of Recent Disasters

  • Events of September 11, 2001

  • HAZMAT training

  • Emergency preparedness


Emergency Preparedness and Response


Emergency Preparedness and Response (Cont’d)

  • In mass casualty or disaster situations, a military form of triage is implemented with the overall goal of doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

  • Safety concerns for providers in the field.


Disaster Triage Tag System

  • Red Tag—emergent (class I) patients

  • Yellow Tag—patients who can wait a short time for care (class II)

  • Green Tag—nonurgent or “walking wounded” (class III)

  • Black Tag—patients who are expected to die or are dead (class IV)


Notification and Activation of Emergency Preparedness Plans

  • Radio or cellular communication between the ED and EMS providers at the scene

  • Media broadcast message via radio, television, or electronic announcements

  • DMAT team


Hospital Incident Command System

  • Common organizational model for disaster management

  • Roles formally structured under the hospital or long-term care facility incident commander with clear lines of authority and accountability for specific resources

  • Emergency Operations Center or Command Center

  • Hospital incident commander

  • Medical command physician

  • Triage officer


Role of Nursing in Hospital Incident Command System

  • Meet patient needs

  • Personal emergency preparedness plan

  • Personal readiness supplies or “go bag”


Basic Supplies for Personal Preparedness (3-Day Supply)


Event Resolution

  • Debriefing:

    • Critical incident stress debriefing

    • Administrative review

  • Psychosocial response of survivors to mass casualty events


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