Chapter 12
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Chapter 12. Concepts of Emergency and Disaster Preparedness. Disaster. Disaster — an event in which illness or injuries exceed resource capabilities of a community or medical facility: Violence Illness outbreaks Severe weather Earthquakes Avalanches Fire.

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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Concepts of Emergency and Disaster Preparedness


Disaster

Disaster

  • Disaster—an event in which illness or injuries exceed resource capabilities of a community or medical facility:

    • Violence

    • Illness outbreaks

    • Severe weather

    • Earthquakes

    • Avalanches

    • Fire


Multi casualty events and mass casualty events

Multi-Casualty Events and Mass Casualty Events

  • Multi-Casualty Event—can be managed by a hospital using local resources.

  • Mass Casualty Event—local medical capabilities are overwhelmed and may require the collaboration of multiple agencies and health care facilities to handle the crisis.


Hurricane katrina

Hurricane Katrina


Impact of recent disasters

Impact of Recent Disasters

  • Events of September 11, 2001

  • HAZMAT training

  • Emergency preparedness


Emergency preparedness and response

Emergency Preparedness and Response


Emergency preparedness and response cont d

Emergency Preparedness and Response (Cont’d)

  • In mass casualty or disaster situations, a military form of triage is implemented with the overall goal of doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

  • Safety concerns for providers in the field.


Disaster triage tag system

Disaster Triage Tag System

  • Red Tag—emergent (class I) patients

  • Yellow Tag—patients who can wait a short time for care (class II)

  • Green Tag—nonurgent or “walking wounded” (class III)

  • Black Tag—patients who are expected to die or are dead (class IV)


Notification and activation of emergency preparedness plans

Notification and Activation of Emergency Preparedness Plans

  • Radio or cellular communication between the ED and EMS providers at the scene

  • Media broadcast message via radio, television, or electronic announcements

  • DMAT team


Hospital incident command system

Hospital Incident Command System

  • Common organizational model for disaster management

  • Roles formally structured under the hospital or long-term care facility incident commander with clear lines of authority and accountability for specific resources

  • Emergency Operations Center or Command Center

  • Hospital incident commander

  • Medical command physician

  • Triage officer


Role of nursing in hospital incident command system

Role of Nursing in Hospital Incident Command System

  • Meet patient needs

  • Personal emergency preparedness plan

  • Personal readiness supplies or “go bag”


Basic supplies for personal preparedness 3 day supply

Basic Supplies for Personal Preparedness (3-Day Supply)


Event resolution

Event Resolution

  • Debriefing:

    • Critical incident stress debriefing

    • Administrative review

  • Psychosocial response of survivors to mass casualty events


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