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Augmented Hyperbooks through Conceptual Integration. G. Falquet L. Nerima J.-C. Ziswiler Information System Interfaces – University of Geneva cui.unige.ch/isi. interface = generated hyperdocuments. Context: Hyperbook model. Virtual document model. domain ontology. interface

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Augmented hyperbooks through conceptual integration

Augmented Hyperbooksthrough Conceptual Integration

G. Falquet

L. Nerima

J.-C. Ziswiler

Information System Interfaces – University of Geneva

cui.unige.ch/isi


Context hyperbook model

interface

=

generated hyperdocuments

Context: Hyperbook model

Virtual document model

domain ontology

interface

specification

information fragments

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


Context library of hyperbooks

O

O

O

O

F

F

F

F

Context: Library of Hyperbooks

  • Augmented reading in a digital library

  • Enrich one hyperbook with contents coming from others

HT+

HT

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


Augmentation through ontology alignment
Augmentation through Ontology Alignment

1. Align the book ontologies

  • compute concept similarities

sij

O

similarity

links

F

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


Augmentation through ontology alignment1
Augmentation through Ontology Alignment

2. Use similarity links to infer hypertext links

similarity

link

O

HT+

HT

F

O

F

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


Problem
Problem

Ontology alignment algorithms need well structured ontologies

BUT

  • Hyperbook writers are not knowledge engineers

  • HT’04 reviewer

    "... nice approach … doubts about feasibility … " 

  • C. Marshall, F. Shipman. Which semantic web ?

    "The difficulty of knowledge acquisition, representation and reasonsing has a long history of being underestimated …"

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


This study
This study

  • Alignment method that works with less formalized (incomplete) ontology

  • Test on two "realistic" hyperbooks

    Sources

    • Multifunctional agriculture

      site

    • World Trade Organization

      (WTO)

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


The hyperbooks
The Hyperbooks

WTO partial ontology

"domestic support"

"1-hour" ontology

page extracts from

WTO site

Multifunctional agriculture

web site

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


Alignment technique
Alignment technique

  • Adapted from [Rodriguez & Egenhofer] concept comparison method

  • Word Matching

    • compare the words in the terms

      "agricultural training service" <--> "agricultural landscape"

    • stop word filtering

    • synonym resolution

  • Fragment matching (feature matching)

    • compare the fragments connected to both concepts

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


Similarity measure
Similarity measure

Compare the sets of words

| A  B |

| A  B | +  | A – B | + (1 - ) | B – A |

  • depends on the relative depths of a and b in the concept hierarchy

    min { depth(a), depth(b) }

    depth(a) + depth(b)

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


Sample similarity values
Sample similarity values

Word matching alone is not sufficient

  • same words used for different concepts

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


Similarity link creation
Similarity link creation

Create link if FM > FMt and WM > WMt

For the test hyperbooks : WMt = FMt = 0

FM

SIM(a, {b1, …, bn})

FMt

WM

WMt

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


Reading the augmented hyperbook
Reading the Augmented Hyperbook

Generate interface documents and links

  • original contents (fragments)

  • inferred links to relevant concepts & contents

  • inferred transclusion and expand-in-place (stretch text)

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks





Conclusion
Conclusion

Alignment technique for "light" ontologies

  • augment hyperbooks written by non knowledge engineers

  • read hyperbooks "in a context"

    Further experiments (Oct. 2005)

  • e-learning: integrate/augment hyperbooks written by students

  • collection of hyperized scientific papers (in physics)

    Perspectives

  • characterization of other alignment algorithms / ontologies

  • hyperbook interface design: usability testing

FNZ - Augmented Hyperbooks


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