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Bioavailability Distribution Absorption and Transport. Volume of Distribution. The volume of distribution is given by the following equation: Therefore the dose required to give a certain plasma concentration can be determined if the V D for that drug is known.

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Presentation Transcript

Bioavailability

Distribution

Absorption and Transport


Volume of Distribution

The volume of distribution is given by the following equation:

Therefore the dose required to give a certain plasma concentration

can be determined if the VD for that drug is known.

The VD is not a physiologic value; it is more a reflection of how a drug

will distribute throughout the body depending

on several physicochemical properties, e.g. solubility, charge, size, etc.

VD is often calculated per weight of body – it is not volume any more!


VD Proportion of Drug in body water

0.1 40%

0.15 27%

1 4%

10 0.4%


Two compartment model

Blood

Tissue


Mode of entry of drugs/toxins

Skin transport

Respiratory route

Oral route


Organ pH Surface Area Time

Stomach 1-3 up to 5 m2 0.5-20 h

Small Intestine 5-7 200 m2 2 h

Colon 7-8 up to 5 2 h – 1 week

logC

Time


Drug Bioavailability VD (L/kg weight)

Diazepam 100 0.5-2

Morphine 15-60 3-5

Pentobarbital 95 0.7-10

Tetrahydrocannabinol 6 9-11

VD Proportion of Drug in body water

0.1 40%

0.15 27%

1 4%

10 0.4%


Surface Area

Solubility

Concentration in bulk

Diffusion Coefficient

Diffusion Layer thickness

Solid


Aqeous area

BiLayer Membrane

Hydrophobic area

Aqeous area

Passive Transport

pH1

pH2


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