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Plant Diversity. The Evolution and Classification of Plants. Why should we care about plants, at all?. Carbon dioxide levels. Indicators for ground level pollution, long before animals. Japan/ radioactive food…. But…. Kudzu- invasive. Did you know…….

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Plant diversity

Plant Diversity

The Evolution and Classification of Plants








Did you know
Did you know……

Oak trees do not reach sexual maturity with acorns until they are fifty years old or older


And that you are 16 times more likely to be struck by lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree


Did you know1
Did you know…. lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree

Bamboo can grow up to three feet in a 24 hour period.


Did you know2
Did you know… lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree

The squirting cucumber (Ecballium elaterium), when brushed by a passerby, ejects its seeds and a stream of poisonous juice that stings the skin


Did you know3
Did you know… lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree

Fruits have become more expensive because we have killed more bees (and birds) with insecticides….


What do I know about plants? lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree

True or False

  • All plants perform photosynthesis.

  • All plants need water and nutrients.

  • All plants reproduce using flowers.

  • All plants reproduce using seeds.


5. lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree Plants eat soil

6. Some plants lose their leaves in the winter because it gets too cold

7. Plants know their up from their down

8. Plants have hormones the same way we do

9. Leaves are different on the two sides


Random thought questions
Random thought questions…. lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree

  • Are there girl and boy plants?

  • Why are mosses so short, and why do they live only in moist areas?

  • When you eat an apple, what are you really eating?

  • If this whole ‘we came from bacteria thing’ is true, where do scientists think plants came from?


Precursors to plants algae
Precursors to plants…algae? lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree


Plant characteristics
PLANT CHARACTERISTICS: lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree

  • Multicellular,eukaryotic, autotrophic

  • Can’t move

  • Photosynthesize and have chlorophyll

  • Cell Walls made of cellulose


Plants Make lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree the Move to Land

The ancestors of plants were multicellular green algae. They were completely immersed in water & dissolved minerals.

To move onto land, plants had to solve these problems:

How to get chemical resources (water, minerals, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) separated into air and soil

How to transport resources within the plant.

How to prevent from drying out

How to reproduce without water


Some Adaptations (solutions) lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree -

Have a protective layer – cuticle (waxy outer layer) to keep from drying out


Some Adaptations (solutions) lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree -

2. Have body parts extending into both air and soil (roots)

3. Have leaves – photosynthesis takes place on tops of leaves


Some Adaptations (solutions) lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree -

4. Develop a vascular system to transport resources in plant

5. . Specialized structures for reproduction including spores & sex cells (seeds) that do not dry out


Plant Growth: lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree

In response to seasons …

Evergreen

Deciduous


Plant Growth: lightning if you’re standing under an oak tree than any other type of tree

In response to stimuli …

Gravitropism

Phototropism



Plants are classified based on whether or not they have
Plants are classified based on whether or not they have gravity is trying to pull them …

  • Vascular System ( pipes for transport)

  • Seeds

  • Flowers (enclosed seeds)


Nonvascular Plants gravity is trying to pull them …

Most primitive plants

NO “pipes” (vascular system)

Small size due to no vascular tissue

No true roots, stems, or leaves

Most common example: Mosses, liverworts


Nonvascular Plants gravity is trying to pull them …

6. Need WATER to reproduce

7. Reproduction can be sexual or asexual

8. Tend to be located near water or in moist/shady places.


Typical moss plant most common bryophyte
Typical Moss Plant gravity is trying to pull them … (most common bryophyte)

NO TRUE roots, stems


Tracheophytes ferns vascular plants
Tracheophytes gravity is trying to pull them … (Ferns)-Vascular Plants-

Contains vascular tissues.. But not much else!


The Fern - a gravity is trying to pull them … seedless vascular plant

There are 11,000 species of ferns.

  • Contain a vascular system – can grow taller than mosses

  • They grow in moist, shady habitats.- WHY?????


Vascular seedless
Vascular-seedless gravity is trying to pull them …

3. Has underground stems, roots, & large leaves called fronds.

4. Reproduction can be sexual or asexual

5. Example: Ferns, horsetails, club mosses


Gymnosperms naked seed
Gymnosperms- “naked seed gravity is trying to pull them … ”

  • Cycad (Sago palm),

  • Ginkgo,

  • Conifer (pine, spruce, firs, cedars, sequoias, redwoods, junipers, yews, & cypress trees)

Sago Palm

Ginkgo

Ginkgo


Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms gravity is trying to pull them …

  • Have pipes and seeds, but no flowers

  • Reproduction relies on wind and water

  • Use cones and pollen

  • Example: Pine trees


Gymnosperms conifers

Sequoia gravity is trying to pull them …

Gymnosperms-Conifers

  • Most common gymnosperms are Conifers

  • Conifers have leaves called needles or scales have a reduced surface area and thick waxy coat on the needle to reduce water loss and prevents freezing.

Juniper

Pine


How do gymnosperms spread their seeds
How do gymnosperms spread their seeds? gravity is trying to pull them …


Conifer reproduction
Conifer Reproduction gravity is trying to pull them …

Pollen

  • Male cones produce pollen and the female cone produces eggsand seeds.

  • Pollen is inefficiently transferred by the wind.

  • Once mature, the scales on the female cone dry out and open scattering the seeds by the wind.

Seed Cone

Pollen Cone


Angiosperms enclosed seeds
Angiosperms- “enclosed seeds” gravity is trying to pull them …


Angiosperms enclosed seeds1
Angiosperms- “enclosed seeds” gravity is trying to pull them …

  • These are flowering plants the encourage direct and efficient pollen transfer (smell, color and offering nectar)

  • Pollinators are flying insects, birds, and bats that transfer pollen from flower to flower.

  • Flowers contain ovaries, which is where eggs/seeds are produced.

  • A fruit is the pollinated ovary containing mature seeds.


Angiosperms enclosed seeds2
Angiosperms- “enclosed seeds” gravity is trying to pull them …

  • Has pipes, seeds, and flowers

  • Reproduction with flowers:

  • Male Parts: stamen (anther and filament)

  • Female Parts: Pistil (stigma, style, overy)


Fruit can aid in dispersal of seed to reduce competition with parent plant
Fruit can gravity is trying to pull them … aid in dispersal of seed to reduce competition with parent plant.

  • Winged fruit

  • Floating fruit

  • Fleshy fruit

  • Spiny fruit

Maple seeds: Winged fruit

Burdock: Spiny fruit


Review of plant evolution
Review of Plant Evolution: gravity is trying to pull them …


Quiz time
Quiz Time gravity is trying to pull them …

  • What did plants have to overcome to live on land?

  • What is the most primitive division of plants because they have no vascular system?

  • What is the most common example in this division and how do they reproduce?

  • Why are mosses so small?

  • What is the division of plants that contain a vascular system?

  • What did a vascular system do for plants size-wise?

  • How are mosses and ferns different?

  • How are mosses and ferns alike?


Quiz time1
Quiz Time gravity is trying to pull them …

  • How are Tracheophytes different from bryophytes?

  • How are tracheophytes divided?

  • What are the advantages of seeds over spores?

  • What other advantages did seed-bearing plants have over spore-bearing plants?

  • What are the two divisions of the seed-bearing tracheophytes?


Quiz time2
Quiz Time gravity is trying to pull them …

  • What does the term Gymnosperm mean?

  • What are the most common of the Gymnosperms?

  • What is the evolutionary importance of needles?

  • What structures do conifers use to reproduce?

  • Were are seeds located in the cone?

  • Even though wind-dispersal of pollen is inefficient, what did it allow plants to overcome?


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