The diversity of cellular life
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The diversity of cellular life. Colonies of primitive unicellular organisms don’t show emergent properties. Prokaryotic organisms or primitive eukaryotic organisms (algae, protistae ) exist in colonies of identical cells

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The diversity of cellular life

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The diversity of cellular life

The diversity of cellular life


Colonies of primitive unicellular organisms don t show emergent properties

Colonies of primitive unicellular organisms don’t show emergent properties

  • Prokaryotic organisms or primitive eukaryotic organisms (algae, protistae) exist in colonies of identical cells

  • While the cells co-operate, they do not fuse to form a single mass and so don’t form a single organism

  • Each cell has identical structure and function


Multicellular organisms have differentiated cells

Multicellular organisms have differentiated cells

Cells are specialised:

  • Blood cells

  • Muscle cells

  • Retinal cells

  • Glandular cells

  • Epithelial cells

    Each cell type has a special task and structure

    Each cell has the same DNA, but only a section of it is expressed


Levels of organisation in a multicellular organism

Levels of ‘organisation’ in a multicellular organism

  • CELL

  • TISSUE

  • ORGANS

  • ORGAN SYSTEMS


Cardiac myocytes

Cardiac myocytes


Heart

Heart


Cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular system


4 key animal tissue types

4 key animal tissue types

  • Epithelial

  • Connective

  • Muscle

  • Nervous


The diversity of cellular life

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Classes of epithelia

Simple: just one layer or cell shape

Stratified: multiple layers and cell shapes

Classes of Epithelia

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


The diversity of cellular life

“ciliated” literally = eyelashes

(see next page)


The diversity of cellular life

Stratified: regenerate from below


Connective tissues

CONNECTIVE TISSUES

  • “Areolar tissue” as model

  • Universal in body

  • Underlies epithelium, supports capillaries, small nerves


Cells of connective tissues

Cells of Connective Tissues

  • Fibroblasts make fibres – cartilage, ligaments, blood, bone

  • Immune cells in areolar tissue


Different types of connective tissues

Different types of Connective tissues

Dense

  • Ligaments

  • Cartilage

  • Bone

Loose

  • Fat

  • Areolar

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Tissue types

Tissue types

3. Muscle tissue

  • Skeletal

  • Cardiac

  • Smooth


Tissue types1

Tissue types

3. Nervous tissue

  • Skeletal

  • Cardiac

  • Smooth


Neuroglia

Neuroglia


Cell differentiation

Cell Differentiation

  • Harvard Animation


What are stem cells

What are stem cells?

  • Cells that are able to generate more specialised types of cell types through the process of cell differentiation

  • Cells that can divide to make identical copies of themselves, through self-renewal

  • You can learn all about stem cells by watching the beautiful animation from Utah Genetics here:

  • Stem Cells


Different types of stem cells

Different types of stem cells

1. Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Here, you can learn how embryonic stem cells are made:

  • Quck guide to Embryonic stem cells

  • Here is the BBC video on how embryonic stem cells are made:

  • How to make stem cells


Different types of stem cells1

Different types of stem cells

2. Somatic Stem Cells

  • (also called adult stem cells)

  • Exist naturally in the body

  • Used for bone marrow transplants

  • Can only differentiate into dedicated cell types


Adult stem cells are committed to become one type of cell

Adult Stem Cells are committed to become one type of cell


Stem cells in the adult brain are they still working for us now

Stem cells in the adult brain:Are they still working for us now?


Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent

Embryonic Stem cells are pluripotent


Different types of stem cells2

Different types of stem cells

3. Induced pluripotential Stem Cells

  • Created artificially in the lab by ‘reprogramming’ a patients own cells

  • Made from patient’s own cells – fat, skin, fibroblasts

  • Can become any cell in the body (even a whole mouse!)


Induced pluripotential stem cells the future

Induced pluripotential Stem Cells – The future!

  • Learn the story of iPS stem cells from Utah Genetics…

  • IPS stem cells


Stem cells used in medicine treatment of leukaemia

Stem Cells used in medicine: Treatment of leukaemia

  • Stem cell transplants have been successfully used since 1968 to treat patients with leukaemia

  • Patients with leukaemia first have their own abnormal blood cells destroyed by radiotherapy

  • Then the patients own bone marrow stem cells are replaced with a transplant (into the bloodstream) from a healthy patient’s bone marrow

  • If the transplant is successful, then the stem cells will migrate into the bone marrow and begin to produce new, healthy leucocytes

  • You can learn all about leukaemia treatment by linking here onto Utah Inc:

  • Utah Genetics


What can we use stem cells for

What can we use Stem Cells for?

  • To provide lab-grown human or animal tissue for identifying new treatments for disease (rather than using animals in research)

  • TO produce new human tissue and organs to replace damaged ones

  • To repair tissue by stimulating stem cells already in the body

  • To use stem cells from patients with inherited genetic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis, some forms of Parkinson’s disease) to study the disease

  • To better understand diseases like cancer

  • To investigate human development


Stem cell research is a fast moving subject

Stem Cell Research is a fast-moving subject

  • Stem cell grandparents

  • Brand new sperm

  • First trial of human embryonic stem cells

  • Tracheal transplant

  • Stem cell nobel prize


The stem cell ethical debate

The Stem Cell Ethical Debate


Links on ethics related to stem cell research

Links on ethics related to Stem Cell research

  • Stem Cell Ethics Factsheet

  • Ethics and Embryos Factsheet

  • Are embryos human? – a conversation…


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