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The diversity of cellular life. Colonies of primitive unicellular organisms don’t show emergent properties. Prokaryotic organisms or primitive eukaryotic organisms (algae, protistae ) exist in colonies of identical cells

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Colonies of primitive unicellular organisms don t show emergent properties
Colonies of primitive unicellular organisms don’t show emergent properties

  • Prokaryotic organisms or primitive eukaryotic organisms (algae, protistae) exist in colonies of identical cells

  • While the cells co-operate, they do not fuse to form a single mass and so don’t form a single organism

  • Each cell has identical structure and function


Multicellular organisms have differentiated cells
Multicellular organisms have differentiated cells emergent properties

Cells are specialised:

  • Blood cells

  • Muscle cells

  • Retinal cells

  • Glandular cells

  • Epithelial cells

    Each cell type has a special task and structure

    Each cell has the same DNA, but only a section of it is expressed


Levels of organisation in a multicellular organism
Levels of ‘ emergent propertiesorganisation’ in a multicellular organism

  • CELL

  • TISSUE

  • ORGANS

  • ORGAN SYSTEMS


Cardiac myocytes
Cardiac emergent propertiesmyocytes


Heart
Heart emergent properties


Cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system emergent properties


4 key animal tissue types
4 key animal tissue types emergent properties

  • Epithelial

  • Connective

  • Muscle

  • Nervous



Classes of epithelia

Simple: emergent properties just one layer or cell shape

Stratified: multiple layers and cell shapes

Classes of Epithelia

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


emergent propertiesciliated” literally = eyelashes

(see next page)



Connective tissues
CONNECTIVE TISSUES emergent properties

  • “Areolar tissue” as model

  • Universal in body

  • Underlies epithelium, supports capillaries, small nerves


Cells of connective tissues
Cells of Connective Tissues emergent properties

  • Fibroblasts make fibres – cartilage, ligaments, blood, bone

  • Immune cells in areolar tissue


Different types of connective tissues
Different types of Connective emergent propertiestissues

Dense

  • Ligaments

  • Cartilage

  • Bone

Loose

  • Fat

  • Areolar

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Tissue types
Tissue types emergent properties

3. Muscle tissue

  • Skeletal

  • Cardiac

  • Smooth


Tissue types1
Tissue types emergent properties

3. Nervous tissue

  • Skeletal

  • Cardiac

  • Smooth


Neuroglia
Neuroglia emergent properties


Cell differentiation
Cell Differentiation emergent properties

  • Harvard Animation


What are stem cells
What are stem cells? emergent properties

  • Cells that are able to generate more specialised types of cell types through the process of cell differentiation

  • Cells that can divide to make identical copies of themselves, through self-renewal

  • You can learn all about stem cells by watching the beautiful animation from Utah Genetics here:

  • Stem Cells


Different types of stem cells
Different types of stem cells emergent properties

1. Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Here, you can learn how embryonic stem cells are made:

  • Quck guide to Embryonic stem cells

  • Here is the BBC video on how embryonic stem cells are made:

  • How to make stem cells


Different types of stem cells1
Different types of stem cells emergent properties

2. Somatic Stem Cells

  • (also called adult stem cells)

  • Exist naturally in the body

  • Used for bone marrow transplants

  • Can only differentiate into dedicated cell types



Stem cells in the adult brain are they still working for us now
Stem cells in the adult brain: emergent propertiesAre they still working for us now?



Different types of stem cells2
Different types of stem cells emergent properties

3. Induced pluripotential Stem Cells

  • Created artificially in the lab by ‘reprogramming’ a patients own cells

  • Made from patient’s own cells – fat, skin, fibroblasts

  • Can become any cell in the body (even a whole mouse!)


Induced pluripotential stem cells the future
Induced emergent propertiespluripotential Stem Cells – The future!

  • Learn the story of iPS stem cells from Utah Genetics…

  • IPS stem cells


Stem cells used in medicine treatment of leukaemia
Stem Cells used in medicine: Treatment of emergent propertiesleukaemia

  • Stem cell transplants have been successfully used since 1968 to treat patients with leukaemia

  • Patients with leukaemia first have their own abnormal blood cells destroyed by radiotherapy

  • Then the patients own bone marrow stem cells are replaced with a transplant (into the bloodstream) from a healthy patient’s bone marrow

  • If the transplant is successful, then the stem cells will migrate into the bone marrow and begin to produce new, healthy leucocytes

  • You can learn all about leukaemia treatment by linking here onto Utah Inc:

  • Utah Genetics


What can we use stem cells for
What can we use Stem Cells for? emergent properties

  • To provide lab-grown human or animal tissue for identifying new treatments for disease (rather than using animals in research)

  • TO produce new human tissue and organs to replace damaged ones

  • To repair tissue by stimulating stem cells already in the body

  • To use stem cells from patients with inherited genetic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis, some forms of Parkinson’s disease) to study the disease

  • To better understand diseases like cancer

  • To investigate human development


Stem cell research is a fast moving subject
Stem Cell Research is a fast-moving subject emergent properties

  • Stem cell grandparents

  • Brand new sperm

  • First trial of human embryonic stem cells

  • Tracheal transplant

  • Stem cell nobel prize


The stem cell ethical debate
The Stem Cell Ethical Debate emergent properties


Links on ethics related to stem cell research
Links on ethics related to Stem Cell research emergent properties

  • Stem Cell Ethics Factsheet

  • Ethics and Embryos Factsheet

  • Are embryos human? – a conversation…


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