Basic computer concepts
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BASIC COMPUTER CONCEPTS. Definition of Computer. Definition: A computer is a device that takes data in one form, uses it, and produces a different form of information which is related to (but may not be the same as) the original data.

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BASIC COMPUTER CONCEPTS

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Basic computer concepts

BASIC COMPUTER CONCEPTS


Definition of computer

Definition of Computer

Definition:

A computer is a device that takes data in one form, uses it, and produces a different form of information which is related to (but may not be the same as) the original data.

An electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate the data according to specified rules (process), produce information (output) from the processing, and store the results for future use.


Definition of modern computer

Definition of Modern Computer

  • Inputs, outputs, processes and stores information

  • Physical: Keyboard, monitor, etc. – are these necessary components?


Advantages of computers

Advantages of Computers

  • Speed

  • Storage

  • High Accuracy

  • Versatility

  • Diligence

  • Automatic Operation

  • Obedience

  • Decision Making Capability


History of computers long long ago

History of Computers - Long, Long Ago

Abacus - 3000 BC

  • beads on rods to count and calculate

  • still widely used in Asia!


Charles babbage 1792 1871

Charles Babbage - 1792-1871

  • Difference Engine .1822

    • huge calculator, never finished

  • Analytical Engine 1833

    • could store numbers

    • calculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructions

    • powered by steam!

    • accurate to six decimal places


Vacuum tubes 1941 1956

Vacuum Tubes - 1941 - 1956

  • First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum Tubes

  • Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside.

  • Vacuum tubes have no air inside them, which protects the circuitry.


Univac 1951

UNIVAC – 1951

  • first fully electronic digital computer built in the U.S. (Universal Automatic Computer)

  • Created at the University of Pennsylvania

  • ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) weighed 30 tons

  • contained 18,000 vacuum tubes

  • Cost a paltry $487,000


First transistor

First Transistor

  • Uses Silicon

  • developed in 1948

  • won a Nobel prize

  • on-off switch

  • Second Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956


Second generation 1965 1963

Second Generation – 1965-1963

  • 1956 – Computers began to incorporate Transistors

  • Replaced vacuum tubes with Transistors


Integrated circuits

Integrated Circuits

  • Third Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips)

  • Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip”


Third generation 1964 1971

Third Generation – 1964-1971

  • 1964-1971

  • Integrated Circuit

  • Operating System

  • Getting smaller, cheaper


The first microprocessor 1971

The First Microprocessor – 1971

  • The 4004 had 2,250 transistors

  • four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s)

  • Called “Microchip”


What is a microchip

What is a Microchip?

  • Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC)

    • Transistors, resistors, and capacitors

  • 4004 had 2,250 transistors

  • Pentium IV has 42 MILLION transistors

    • Each transistor 0.13 microns (10-6 meters)


4 th generation 1971 present

4th Generation – 1971-present

  • MICROCHIPS!

  • Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still using microchip technology


Generations of electronic computers

Generations of Electronic Computers


Over the past 50 years the electronic computer has evolved rapidly

Over the past 50 years, the Electronic Computer has evolved rapidly.

Connections:

  • Which evolved from the other, which was an entirely new creation

    • vacuum tube

    • integrated circuit

    • transistor

    • microchip


Evolution of electronics

Evolution of Electronics

Microchip (VLSIC)

Integrated Circuit

Transistor

Vacuum Tube


Evolution of electronics1

Evolution of Electronics

  • Vacuum Tube – a dinosaur without a modern lineage

  • Transistor  Integrated Circuit  Microchip


Ibm pc 1981

IBM PC - 1981

  • IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture

  • First wide-selling personal computer used in business

  • 8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors

    • 4.77 Mhz processing speed

  • 256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard

  • One or two floppy disk drives


1990s pentiums and power macs

1990s: Pentiums and Power Macs

  • Early 1990s began penetration of computers into every niche: every desk, most homes, etc.

  • Faster, less expensive computers paved way for this

  • Windows 95 was first decent GUI for “PCs”

  • Macs became more PC compatible - easy file transfers

  • Prices have plummeted

    • $2000 for entry level to $500

    • $6000 for top of line to $1500


21 st century computing

21st Century Computing

  • Great increases in speed, storage, and memory

  • Increased networking, speed in Internet

  • Widespread use of CD-RW

  • PDAs(Personal Digital Assistant)

  • Cell Phone/PDA

  • WIRELESS!!!


What s next for computers

What’s next for computers?

  • Use your imagination to come up with what the next century holds for computers.

    • What can we expect in two years?

    • What can we expect in twenty years?


Classification of computers according to size

Classification of Computers According to Size

  • Super Computers:

    Supercomputer a state-of-the-art, extremely powerful computer capable of manipulating massive amounts of data in a relatively short time. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation, among them meteorology, animated graphics, nuclear energy research and weapon simulation, and petroleum exploration.


Classification of computers according to size1

Classification of Computers According to Size

2Main Frame Computers:

Expensive

Quickest

Speedy

Used in large Companies


Classification of computers according to size2

Classification of Computers According to Size

. 3 Mini Computers

A minicomputer is a class of multi-user computers that lies in the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers).


Classification of computers according to size3

Classification of Computers According to Size

. 4 Micro Computers

A microcomputer is a computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit. They are also called “computer of a chip” because its entire circuitry is contained in one tiny chip. They are physically small compared to mainframe and minicomputers.


What does a computer do

What does a computer do?

Processor

Control Unit/Arithmetic Logic Unit

  • Input

  • Process

  • Output

  • Storage

Input Devices

Output Devices

Memory

Storage Devices

Information Processing Cycle


Input devices

Input Devices

  • Any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer

  • Input Device Examples

    • Keyboard

    • Mouse

    • Mic

    • Scanner

    • Joystick


Output devices

Output Devices

  • Output devices make the information resulting from processing available for use

  • Output Device Examples

    • Printers

      • Impact

      • Nonimpact

    • Display Devices

      • CRT

      • LCD

    • Speakers


Backing storage

Backing Storage

Backing storage devices are where you can store data permanently. This means that data is held when the computer is switched off and can be loaded onto a computer system when required.

These devices are also known as secondary storage devices or auxiliary devices.


Secondary storage devices

Secondary Storage Devices

  • Removable

    • Floppy disk, or diskette

    • Compact Disc CD-R, CD-RW, CD-ROM

    • DVDs – DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM

    • Zip disk

    • Flash disk/USB drive

    • Tape

  • Non-Removable

    • Hard disk


Types of computer softwares

Types of Computer Softwares

SOFTWARE: -

The software is the planned, step-by-step set of electronic instructions required to turn data into information that makes a computer useful.

As stated software, or program, consists of the instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task.

It is fall into two categories: -

  • System software.

  • Application software.


Types of computer softwares1

Types of Computer Softwares

1.System Software: -

System software enables the application software to interact with the computer and helps the computer manage its internal and external resources. System software is required to run application software. Buyers of new computers will find the system software has already been installed by the manufacture.

There are two basic types of system software such as: -

Operating system. (e.g. Windows, DOS, etc)

Utility programs: (e.g. Antivirus, file compression,etc)


Types of computer softwares2

Types of Computer Softwares

2. Application Software:

Application software, also known as an application, is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks. Examples include accounting software, office suites, graphics software, and media players.


Application software

Application Software

  • Word Processing

  • Spreadsheet

  • Presentation Graphics

  • Database

  • Contact Management


Computers file size units of measurement

Computers, file size, units of measurement

The basic unit used in computer data storage is called a bit (binary digit). Computers use these little bits, which are composed of ones and zeros, to do things and talk to other computers. All your files, for instance, are kept in the computer as binary files and translated into words and pictures by the software (which is also ones and zeros).


Units of memory

UNITS OF MEMORY

  • 8Bit = 1Byte

  • 1024 Byte = 1 KiloByte

  • 1024 KiloByte = 1 Mega Byte

  • 1024 MegaByte = 1 GigaByte

  • 1024 Giga Byte = 1 Tera Byte

  • 1024 Tera Byte = 1 Pica Byte

  • 1024 Pica Byte = 1 Nano Byte


E volution of c omputer s ystems

1946-1959

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

First Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes

Page 24


E volution of c omputer s ystems1

1946-1959

1957-1963

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Second Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes

  • Transistors

Page 24


E volution of c omputer s ystems2

1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Third Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes

  • Transistors

  • Integrated circuits

Page 25


E volution of c omputer s ystems3

1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

1980 - present

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Fourth Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes

  • Transistors

  • Integrated circuits

  • VLSI (very-large-scale integrated) circuits


E volution of c omputer s ystems4

1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

1980 - present

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

The Development of Microcomputers

Apple

IBM PC

1981

Page 26


Basic computer concepts

  • Before the 1500s, in Europe, calculations were made with an abacus

    • Invented around 500BC, available in many cultures (China, Mesopotamia, Japan, Greece, Rome, etc.)

  • In 1642, Blaise Pascal (French mathematician, physicist, philosopher) invented a mechanical calculator called the Pascaline

  • In 1671, Gottfried von Leibniz (German mathematician, philosopher) extended the Pascaline to do multiplications, divisions, square roots: the Stepped Reckoner

  • None of these machines had memory, and they required human intervention at each step


Basic computer concepts

  • In 1822 Charles Babbage (English mathematician, philosopher), sometimes called the “father of computing” built the Difference Engine

  • Machine designed to automate the computation (tabulation) of polynomial functions (which are known to be good approximations of many useful functions)

    • Based on the “method of finite difference”

    • Implements some storage

  • In 1833 Babbage designed the Analytical Engine, but he died before he could build it

    • It was built after his death, powered by steam


Von neumann architecture

Computer

Data

Main Memory

CPU

Bus

Control

Von Neumann Architecture

  • Principles

    • Data and instructions are both stored in the main memory(stored program concept)

    • The content of the memory is addressable by location (without regard to what is stored in that location)

    • Instructions are executed sequentially unless the order is explicitly modified

    • The basic architecture of the computer consists of:


Von neumann architecture1

Computer System

Output Device

Bus

Bus

Input Device

Computer

Data

Bus

Main Memory

CPU

Secondary Storage Device

Control

von Neumann Architecture

  • A more complete view of the computer system architecture that integrates interaction (human or otherwise) consists of:

Five Main Components:

1. CPU

2. Main Memory (RAM)

3. I/O Devices

4. Mass Storage

5. Interconnection network (Bus)


Another view of a digital computer

Another view of a digital computer


The instruction cycle

The Instruction Cycle

  • The Instruction Cycle

    • Basic

    • Intermediate

    • Exceptions


The instruction cycle basic view

Start

Fetch Instruction

Execute Instruction

The Instruction Cycle - Basic View

  • Once the computer has been started (bootstrapped) it continually executes instructions (until the computer is stopped)

  • Different instructions take different amounts of time to execute (typically)

  • All instructions and data are contained in main memory


The instruction cycle intermediate view

Start

Fetch Instruction

Fetch Operand

Decode Instruction

Execute Instruction

The Instruction Cycle - Intermediate View

  • A complete instruction consists of

    • operation code

    • addressing mode

    • zero or more operands

      • immediately available data (embedded within the instruction)

      • the address where the data can be found in main memory


The instruction cycle exceptions

Start

Fetch Instruction

Fetch Operand

Decode Instruction

Execute Instruction

The Instruction Cycle - Exceptions

  • Exceptions, or errors, may occur at various points in the instruction cycle, for example:

Possible Exception?

Possible Exception?

Possible Exception?

Possible Exception?


The instruction cycle exceptions1

Start

Fetch Instruction

Fetch Operand

Decode Instruction

Execute Instruction

The Instruction Cycle - Exceptions

  • Exceptions, or errors, may occur at various points in the instruction cycle, for example:

    • Addressing - the memory does not exist or is inaccessible


The instruction cycle exceptions2

Start

Fetch Instruction

Fetch Operand

Decode Instruction

Execute Instruction

The Instruction Cycle - Exceptions

  • Exceptions, or errors, may occur at various points in the instruction cycle, for example:

    • Operation - the operation code does not denote a valid operation


The instruction cycle exceptions3

Start

Fetch Instruction

Fetch Operand

Decode Instruction

Execute Instruction

The Instruction Cycle - Exceptions

  • Exceptions, or errors, may occur at various points in the instruction cycle, for example:

    • Execution - the instruction logic fails, typically due to the input data

      • divide by zero

      • integer addition/subtraction overflow

      • floating point underflow/overflow


The end

THE END


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