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LIFE CYCLE RESEARCH AND THE APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY. Professor Michael Overcash North Carolina State University [email protected] ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL FRAMEWORKS. SUSTAINABILITY INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY GREEN CHEMISTRY AND GREEN ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES.

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Life cycle research and the approaches to sustainability

LIFE CYCLE RESEARCH AND THE APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY

Professor Michael Overcash

North Carolina State University

[email protected]


Advanced environmental frameworks
ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL FRAMEWORKS

  • SUSTAINABILITY

  • INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

  • GREEN CHEMISTRY AND GREEN ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES



Life cycle tools
LIFE CYCLE TOOLS

LIFE CYCLE STAGE

DECISIONS

IMPROVEMENT

ANALYSIS

IMPACT

ASSESSMENT

  • POLICY ISSUES

  • SUSTAINABILITY

  • MACRO

  • IMPROVEMENTS

  • NEW

  • TECHNOLOGY

  • POLLUTION

  • PREVENTION

  • PROCESS ALTERNATIVES

INVENTORY

ANALYSIS


Ethyl Acetate

Dichlorobenzene

Carbon Disulfide

HCl

Sodium bicarbonate

Benzene

Hexane

Aluminum Chloride

T

Toluene

Methylene Chloride

SMB

EtOH

S

NaOH

Water

THF

Sodium Borohydride

Toluene

Thionyl Chloride

Succinic Anhydride


Life cycle is a tool
LIFE CYCLE IS A TOOL

  • DEVELOPED TO DEAL WITH COMPLEXITY OF ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTS

  • HELPS US QUANTIFY, UNDERSTAND, AND SEEK IMPROVEMENT

    • IMPROVE ENVIRONMENT

    • IMPROVE ECONOMICS


Improved lci classification system
IMPROVED LCI CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

  • LOW COMPLEXITY PACKAGING, BASIC MATERIALS

  • MODERATE SEMICONDUCTORS, PHARMA- COMPLEXITY CEUTICAL PRODUCTS, MANY CONSUMER PRODUCTS

  • HIGH COMPLEXITY AUTOMOBILE, FIGHTER AIRCRAFT


Four general methods for life cycle inventory data
FOUR GENERAL METHODS FOR LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATA

  • DIRECT MEASUREMENT FROM FACILITIES

  • CONSORTIA OF STAKEHOLDERS

  • ECONOMIC INPUT/OUTPUT

  • CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN METHOD


Life cycle efforts at ncsu
LIFE CYCLE EFFORTS AT NCSU

  • RESEARCH TO DEVELOP RAPID LCI TECHNIQUES

  • DEVELOPMENT OF GENERIC TOOLS FOR LCI

  • CREATION OF LCI LIBRARY

  • RESEARCH TO INTEGRATE LCI WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING


A life cycle inventory lci is a complete mass and energy balance to determine
A LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY (LCI) IS A COMPLETE MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE TO DETERMINE

  • INPUTS

  • CHEMICAL EMISSIONS

  • ENERGY NEEDS

    SOME BOUNDARY MUST BE SPECIFIED


Life cycle inventory quality
LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY QUALITY BALANCE TO DETERMINE

  • TRANSPARENCY

  • ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES OF MASS & ENERGY

  • MULTIPLE VIEWS

  • LOGICAL MECHANISM TO CHANGE

  • EXPECTATIONS OF DECISION-MAKERS

  • CRITICAL RELATION OF SYSTEM TO SUSTAINABILITY FACTORS


  • Ammonia Process BALANCE TO DETERMINE

  • CONTENTS OF FACTORY GATE TO FACTORY GATE

  • LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY SUMMARY (Byproduct allocation not included)

  • Chemistry

  • Process Summary

  • Summary of LCI Information

  • Process Diagram Interpretation Sheet

  • Process Diagram or Boundary of LCI

  • Mass Balance of Chemicals in each Process Stream (Highlighting Chemicals that are Wastes and the Physical State when Lost)

  • Graph of Cumulative Chemical Losses through Manufacturing Process

  • Graph of Cumulative Non-Contaminated Water Use/Emission through Manufacturing Process (Not applicable)

  • Graph of Cumulative Non-Contaminated Water Use/Emission through Manufacturing Process

  • Energy Input for each Unit Process, Cumulative Energy Requirements, Cooling Requirements (exotherms), and Assumed Heat Recovery from Hot Streams Receiving Cooling

  • Graph of Cumulative Energy Requirements

  • Conversion of Chemical Losses and Energy Requirements into Environmental Parameters, Prior to any Treatment or Discharge to the Environment

  • Waste Management Summary

  • CHEMISTRY:

  • N2 + 3H2 2NH3

  • Nitrogen Hydrogen Ammonia

  • CH4 + 2H2O CO2 + 4H2

  • Methane Water Carbon dioxide Hydrogen

  • PROCESS:

  • Ammonia is produced by the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, The source of hydrogen is natural gas, and nitrogen is air. Carbon dioxide is also produced in the ammonia plant. This is regarded as a by-product. Ammonia is purified by refrigeration


Air BALANCE TO DETERMINE

1108 kg/hr

Water 106kg/hr

CO2 46.61 kg/hr

NO 3.52kg/hr

NO2 5.39 kg/hr

N2 560 kg/hr

Ar 10 kg/hr

O2 27 kg/hr

25oC

1 atm

4

Compressor A

497.8oC

27.2 atm

974oC

31 atm

(g)

788oC

47

760oC

27.2 atm

5

8

25oC

1 atm

(g)

Secondary

reformer

3

Water 1200 kg/hr

(g)

(g)

2

6

(l)

(l)

(l)

25oC

1 atm

(g)

9

788oC

31 atm

Pump 1

Primary reformer

Natural gas

446.75kg/hr

1-a

360oC

31 atm

(g)

(g)

Heat recovery A

1

25oC

1 atm

(g)

Burner

7

C

C1 20 oC

C2 20 oC

Used as a fuel

48

(g)

25oC

1 atm

Heating fuel

Pump A

C3 50 oC

A

Air

688kg/hr

C26 20 oC

(g)

16

(g)

C25 20 oC

40oC

31 atm

Shift converter

High temp.

Shift converter

Low temp.

10

12

427oC

31 atm

Pump J

266oC

31 atm

C7 20 oC

Pump C

(g)

C8 20 oC

Gas/liquid

Separator A

13

14

(g/l)

(g)

Cooler A

40oC

31 atm

Heat recovery B

Heat recovery C

90oC

31 atm

C9 50 oC

(g)

(l)

243oC

31 atm

C4 20 oC

C6 50 oC

C27 50 oC

15

C5 20 oC

11

Water

512.85 kg/hr

Pump B


B BALANCE TO DETERMINE

Pump F

C13 20 oC

C14 20 oC

76oC

20 atm

82oC

(g)

Carbon dioxide

1179 kg/hr

17

(g)

41oC

21

20

Cooler C

25

25oC

Carbon dioxide

absorber

Carbon dioxide

stripper

C15 50 oC

C11 20 oC

Cooler B

Pump D

A

C12 50 oC

C10 20 oC

24

Boiler

(l)

78oC

(g/l)

(g/l)

18

18-a

76oC

19

80 oC

S1 207 oC(g)

76oC

S2 207 oC(l)

Heat exchanger A

22

23

82oC

(l)

Pump E


Steam-turbine centrifugal compressor B BALANCE TO DETERMINE

38oC

177 atm

38oC

177 atm

39

41

S7 316 oC (g)

(g)

S8 149 oC (l)

(g)

C16 20 oC

Pump G

Pump H

40

Pump I

Steam-turbine centrifugal compressor A

S9 316 oC (g)

S8 149 oC (l)

Heat recovery D

C19 20 oC

C22 20 oC

C17

(g)

(g)

C20

C23

29

30

31

32

33

Cooler F

(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

313oC

20 atm

147oC

170 atm

93oC

204 atm

27

28

(g)

25oC

43oC

20 atm

177oC

170 atm

Cooler D

Cooler E

C24 50 oC

121oC

20 atm

Methanator

C18 50 oC

C21 50 oC

35

Refrigerator A

(g)

(g)

158oC

177 atm

36

Heat exchanger B

Ammonia

Converter

(l/g)

S5 207 oC(g)

S11 207 oC(g)

S12 207 oC(l)

Gas/Liquid

Separator C

254oC

177 atm

34

38

-23oC

204 atm

S6 207 oC(l)

(g)

-23oC

204 atm

(g)

Heat recovery E

288oC

20 atm

26

(g)

(l)

(g)

-23oC

177 atm

C

37

44

S3 207 oC(g)

Heater A

371oC

177 atm

42

43

(l/g)

-23oC

177 atm

(l)

S4 207 oC(l)

Gas/Liquid

Separator D

Refrigerator B

-23oC

1 atm

Ammonia

Storage

-23oC

177 atm

NH3 990.88 kg/hr

Water 9.38 kg/hr

B

(l)

45

46


SUMMARY OF LCI INFORMATION BALANCE TO DETERMINE

Product: Ammonia

Basis: 1,000 kg/hr ammonia

Reference: Slack, V. and James R.G., Ammonia, Marcel Dekker, inc., 1973.

Brykowski F.J. Ammonia and synthesis gas, Noyes Data Corporation, 1981.

Plant Location:

Comments: All mass and energy units per hour are equivalent to per 1,000 kgof ammonia

Inputs

Product


Process emissions* BALANCE TO DETERMINE

Water (513 kg), oxygen (27kg) and nitrogen (560 kg) are not included.


Energy Requirements BALANCE TO DETERMINE

* Oxygen and nitrogen are not included;

** Energy requirement minus potential heat recovery from cooling systems

N/A not applicable for this chemical process


Ethyl Acetate BALANCE TO DETERMINE

Dichlorobenzene

Carbon Disulfide

HCl

Sodium bicarbonate

Benzene

Hexane

Aluminum Chloride

T

Toluene

Methylene Chloride

SMB

EtOH

S

NaOH

Water

THF

Sodium Borohydride

Toluene

Thionyl Chloride

Succinic Anhydride


Carbon frame efficiency

IV BALANCE TO DETERMINE

C

O

H

2

Cl

Cl

“Carbon frame” efficiency

IX

XI

X

3

+

Benzene

T-S yield=33%

SOCl2/

AlCl3

VI

VII

VIII

V

Tetralone yield=37%

Separation

Racemic mixture:

cis(+,-) & trans(+,-)

Total yield=12.2%


10 improvement in carbon utilization efficiency
10% IMPROVEMENT IN CARBON UTILIZATION EFFICIENCY BALANCE TO DETERMINE

  • WITHIN THE COMPANY (kg/kg Sertraline):

    97 96 1 (most waste is solvent)

  • THROUGHOUT THE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPLEX (kg/kg Sertraline)

    39,098 35,794 3,304

    Over 3,000-fold greater impact


Solvent usage efficiency
Solvent usage efficiency BALANCE TO DETERMINE

THF

THF

TiCl4

CH3NH2

0°C

THF

Naphtale-

nona

Naphtalen-

amine

mixing

46

Cool

1-5°C 47

Addition

48

Reaction,

Stirring and

Cooling <10°C

49

Stirring

17hr, N2 50

Filtration

w/washing

51

Vacuum

52

THF

TiO2 “cake”

+ Reactants + Solvent

+ Chemical losses + Solvent


10 improvement in solvent usage

10% IMPROVEMENT IN SOLVENT USAGE BALANCE TO DETERMINE

WITHIN THE COMPANY (kg.kg Sertraline)

97 89 8

WITHIN THE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPLEX (kg/kg Sertraline)

39,098 38,493 605

LARGER EFFECT WITHIN COMPANY, BUT GREATEST IMPACT IS OUTSIDE COMPANY


  • DIVERSITY OF DATABASE BALANCE TO DETERMINE

    • LARGE MOLECULES

    • FERMENTATION PRODUCTS

    • SEMICONDUCTOR FAMILY

    • COMMODITY

    • SOLVENTS

    • OTHERS


Areas of life cycle research at north carolina state university
AREAS OF LIFE CYCLE RESEARCH AT NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY

  • CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING (COMMODITY AND SPECIALTY)

  • ADVANCED ENERGETIC CHEMICALS

  • PHARMACEUTICALS

  • CO2 PROCESSING R & D

  • ANIMAL WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

  • BENEFICIAL REUSE OF WASTE MATERIALS

  • CARPET PRODUCTS

  • SEMICONDUCTORS


Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS UNIVERSITY

THE EMPHASIS ON LCI MEETS A SUBSTANTIVE NEED IN THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY

NET (OR HIDDEN) BENEFITS ARE OFTEN DIFFERENT FROM DIRECT BENEFITS

LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY QUALITY IS IMPORTANT FOR DECISION-MAKING

APPLICATION OF LIFE CYCLE TO NEW PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES IS AN IMPORTANT NEW USE


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