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The Social Inclusion Agenda in the Western Balkans and Turkey: key challenges. Dr. Paul Stubbs Senior Research Fellow The Institute of Economics, Zagreb pstubbs@eizg.hr Consultation Workshop, Torino 12.12.11. A ‘Coat of Paint’ Theory of Social Exclusion.

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The social inclusion agenda in the western balkans and turkey key challenges

The Social Inclusion Agenda in the Western Balkans and Turkey: key challenges

Dr. Paul Stubbs

Senior Research Fellow

The Institute of Economics, Zagreb

pstubbs@eizg.hr

Consultation Workshop, Torino 12.12.11


A coat of paint theory of social exclusion

A ‘Coat of Paint’ Theory of Social Exclusion

Following Paul Gilroy (1987) on racism:

  • “A coat of paint theory” of social exclusion sees it as an aberrant or surface feature of society, and therefore easily removed.

  • Seeing social exclusion as an integral part of the way contemporary societies are structured, organised and legitimated, offers a very different perspective.

  • Exploring the institutionalised nature of social exclusion requires understanding how it is embedded in social relations.

  • Bringing political agency back in addresses the relationship between social exclusion and clientelistic social relations.

  • The challenge is, therefore, to deal with the complex and diverse ways that diverse forms of social exclusion actually work.


A moral underclass discourse

A ‘Moral Underclass Discourse’

Ruth Levitas (1990) expressed concern about the rise of a Moral Underclass Discourse (MUD) at the expense of both a Social Integrationist Discourse (SID) and, in particular, a Redistributive Discourse (RED)

  • Social exclusion is caused by the moral attitudes and cultural practices of those who are excluded

  • Responses to social exclusion may promote dependency and reinforce a “cycle of poverty and deprivation”

  • Programmes for those capable to work should be conditioned in some way to ensure attitudinal and behavioural change


Social inclusion agendas

Social Inclusion Agendas

  • Residual <-> Comprehesive

  • Fragmented <-> Co-ordinated

  • Punitive <-> Empowering

  • Ad Hoc <-> Evidence-based

  • Clientelistic <-> Needs-based

  • Discriminatory <-> Anti-discriminatory

  • Marginal <-> Central (Growth, Employment, Inclusion, ...)


Europe 2020

Europe 2020

The best possibe strategy at the worst possible moment?

Positive: key quantifiable targets; flagship initiatives; net social progress; inclusive growth

Negative: OMC as ‘business as usual’; return to 1980s anti-poverty agenda; IMF-EU meta-critical partnerships; first wave of NRPs worse than Lisbon II


The myth of high social spending

The Myth of High Social Spending

Source: O’Mahony RCC 2011, For EU data EUROSTAT and for WB data IMF and EFPs/PEPs


A varied fiscal envelope

A Varied Fiscal Envelope

Source: O’Mahony RCC 2011


Drivers of social exclusion

Drivers of Social Exclusion

  • Multiple shocks: War/conflicts; Structural transition; Deindustrialisation; Erosion of social capital/solidarities; ‘Captured’ social policies; Economic and Financial Crisis

  • Distortions caused by ‘locked in’ expenditures (tertiary health care; residential care) and new (informal) marketization

  • Legacy of category-based (not needs-based) social protection

  • Stigma, discrimination and over-professionalised approaches

  • Political will – Fiscal space – Technical capacities


Groups at risk of exclusion

Groups ‘At Risk’ of Exclusion

  • Multi-dimensionality and inter-sectionality of exclusion (n.b. research and data gaps)

  • ‘At risk’: (Long-term) Unemployed; Older people; Large families; Women; Children; Youth; Low education levels; RDPs; Minorities (esp. Roma but also national minorities and ‘small minorities’); People with Disabilities; People with long-term health issues; Migrants/returnees/left behind

  • Danger of Generalisations – only (some) men aged 30-45 not excluded?

  • Spatial dimension: Arc of exclusion; Rural – Urban; Zones of exclusion

  • ‘New’ survival strategies eroding long-term capabilities?


Emigration and rural urban migration

Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration

  • Inflexible (formal) labour markets

  • Mis-match of skills and supply-demand at local-national-regional levels

  • Loss of highly skilled workforce

  • Migration as deskilling and discrimination

  • Those ‘left behind’ in rural and disadvantaged areas

  • Forced return and vicious not virtual circles


Local capacities for social inclusion

Local Capacities for Social Inclusion

  • National strategies rarely impact at local levels

  • Social dimension marginalised in regional and local development strategies

  • New Regional Social Planning highly technicised but lacks evidence-base

  • Significant gaps in funding, staffing, capacity

  • Employment and social assistance emphasised over personal social services


Clientelism and social inclusion policies

Clientelism and Social Inclusion Policies

  • Benefits to groups in exchange for political support – governance, citizenship and (re)distribution

  • Southern Europe – South East Europe – Post-Communist (nb also Corporatist Central Europe)

  • Institutional particularism <-> Corruption

  • Employment opportunities

  • Ethnicised citizenship claims including Diaspora and cross-border claims-making

  • War veterans as privileged group: passive benefits; positive discrimination; vocal interest groups

  • Pensioners and minority political parties – categorical or particularistic interests


Promoting social inclusion the state public sector

Promoting Social Inclusion: the state/public sector

  • The role of the state: public goods – bloated bureaucracy – clientelistic rent seeker?

  • Post-Yu countries – Centres for Social Work and Employment Bureaux

  • Governance – poor horizontal and vertical co-ordination

  • Regulation - over legalistic but with many gaps

  • Human resources - limited skills to meet ‘new’ social risks

  • Funding - low and inconsistent; little support for non-state actors/providers

  • Strategy – too many strategies; too little participation; no real M&E; too influenced by international organisations (nb JIM/JAP process)


Promoting social inclusion the market

Promoting Social Inclusion: the market

  • Few incentives for private, for-profit providers (health, education, social services, ...)

  • Some development of Corporate Social Responsibility: move from from philanthropy to sustainable partnerships

  • Growth of market ideas within the public sector (new public management)

  • Informal marketization / commodification of public goods /privatization of public space


Promoting social inclusion ngos

Promoting Social Inclusion: NGOs

  • Inverse care law – NGOs where they are needed least

  • Time-limited, donor-driven funding

  • Service provision at the expense of advocacy and empowerment?

  • Projectisation and endless pilot projects

  • ‘The new project class’ and ‘the rise of the meta-NGO’

  • Innovations are very rarely scaled up or rolled out


Promoting social inclusion social entrepreneurship

Promoting Social Inclusion: social entrepreneurship

  • Lack of definition, understanding and legal framework

  • Donor-driven model with policy transfer (CEE -> SEE)

  • Implicit or explicit neo-liberal agenda

  • SE from below – green, gender, informal networks, etc

  • New social energy – disability advocacy coalitions


Vet for social inclusion

VET for Social Inclusion

  • Empowering (guidance) or conditional (insertion)?

  • Linkages to labour force and skills planning

  • Evidence of impacts on long-term employability?

  • Cherry picking and creation of new middle class?

  • Short-term, project-based and reliant on intermediaries

  • Absence of research on social structure, social mobility, transition from school to work

  • Building on capacities and coping mechanisms


Towards a renewed social inclusion agenda i

Towards A Renewed Social Inclusion Agenda I

  • Inclusive labour markets (disability; age; gender) and improved returns to education (life-long learning; skills; transitioning e.g school to work)

  • Holistic and integrated child and family policies (early childhood interventions; universal child benefits; family support services)

  • Deinstitutionalisation and minimum basket of community-based services

  • Social pensions within ‘active ageing’ policies

  • Anti-discrimination laws and practices

  • Area-based approaches/Action zones


Towards a renewed social inclusion agenda ii

Towards A Renewed Social Inclusion Agenda II

  • Support for ‘evidence-based’ policy making – Strategic Goals; Benchmarks; Indicators; M&E; Impact Assessment (including all stakeholders)

  • Enhanced ‘social’ dimension of IPA programming

  • Regional cooperation (modelling OMC-JIM; Peer review/peer learning; common concerns; RCC as bridge to EU/global frameworks?)

  • Case for repoliticisation and social investment


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